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ruled the Western European empire; was not friendly to Islam

Battle of Tours

his grandfather, Charles Martel, had defeated a Muslim army that ventured into Frankish territory after Muslim forced had conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula


the Germanic general; deposed the last of the western Roman emperors, but the adminnistrative apparatus of the Roman empire did not immediately disappear

The Franks

profoundly influenced the political, social, and cultural development of western Europe; rapid rise had to do with religion


a strong military and political leader; the Franks became the preeminent military and political power under him in Western Europe


after Clovis's death the Frankish kings lost much of their authority, as aristocratic warriors seized effective control of affairs in their own regions; this established Clovis's sucsessors' empire thing?; founder Charles

Battle of Tours

he turned back a Muslim army that had ventured from Spain-- recently conquered by Muslim warriors from North Africa--in order to reconnoiter lands north of the Pyrenees mountains

Charles Martel

"Charles the Hammer" founder of the Carolingians; led the battle of tours; served as a deputy to the Franks; Charles's son claimed the throne for himself


Charles martel's grandson; Charles the Great; like King harsha; extremely intelligent though not literate; was not rich, so he had counts and missi dominici


held political, military, and legal authority in local jurisdictions; often had their own political ambitions, and they sometimes pursued policies contrary to the interest of the central government

Missi Dominici

'envoys of the lord ruler" made to keep the counts in check

Louis the Pious

Charlemagne's only surviving son, kept the empire together; but then he died and it was all downhill from there; his sons were like everyone else

Norse Mariners/ Norse Expansion

viking invasions represented on dimension of a larger process of Norse expansion because they needed more land; norse mariners just had really good ships


were fierce and sailed really great ships that got them far

England and their ways of defending

they united their kingdom with he help of King Alfred


just had a really good army; King Otto


individuals neither fully slave nor fully free


a large estate consisting of fields, meadows, forests, agricultural tools, domestic animals, and sometimes lakes or rivers, as well as serfs bound to the land

Low Countries

the lowland region of western Europe on the North Sea: Belgium and Luxembourg and the Netherlands

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