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Battle of Tours
his grandfather, Charles Martel, had defeated a Muslim army that ventured into Frankish territory after Muslim forced had conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula
the Germanic general; deposed the last of the western Roman emperors, but the adminnistrative apparatus of the Roman empire did not immediately disappear
profoundly influenced the political, social, and cultural development of western Europe; rapid rise had to do with religion
a strong military and political leader; the Franks became the preeminent military and political power under him in Western Europe
after Clovis's death the Frankish kings lost much of their authority, as aristocratic warriors seized effective control of affairs in their own regions; this established Clovis's sucsessors' empire thing?; founder Charles
Battle of Tours
he turned back a Muslim army that had ventured from Spain-- recently conquered by Muslim warriors from North Africa--in order to reconnoiter lands north of the Pyrenees mountains
"Charles the Hammer" founder of the Carolingians; led the battle of tours; served as a deputy to the Franks; Charles's son claimed the throne for himself
Charles martel's grandson; Charles the Great; like King harsha; extremely intelligent though not literate; was not rich, so he had counts and missi dominici
held political, military, and legal authority in local jurisdictions; often had their own political ambitions, and they sometimes pursued policies contrary to the interest of the central government
Louis the Pious
Charlemagne's only surviving son, kept the empire together; but then he died and it was all downhill from there; his sons were like everyone else
Norse Mariners/ Norse Expansion
viking invasions represented on dimension of a larger process of Norse expansion because they needed more land; norse mariners just had really good ships
a large estate consisting of fields, meadows, forests, agricultural tools, domestic animals, and sometimes lakes or rivers, as well as serfs bound to the land
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