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Biology Exam 2
Terms in this set (128)
Energy cannot be ___ or ___.
When ATP is used in a reaction, the last phosphate is transferred to the ___.
Once phosphates are released from ATP they can be added back in an ___ reaction.
The heat and light given off a match when lit is an ___ reaction.
energy contained in an object because of its position or internal state, but the energy is not doing work at the time
What binds to the active site of an enzyme?
In anabolic reactions that involve the synthesis of a large molecule from smaller precursor molecules, NADH and ATP are ___ when they provide the needed electrons or energy.
In catabolic reactions that involve the breakdown of a molecule into smaller subunits, such as glucose to pyruvate, NADH and ATP are ___.
In the reaction Pyruvate + NADH —> Lactate + NAD, Pyruvate is being ___.
In the reaction Pyruvate + NADH —> Lactate + NAD, NADH is being ___.
Stages of Glycolysis
1. Energy Investment
3. Energy Liberation
The advantage of having a pathway organized as a cycle is that
the final product of the cycle can be combined with a small molecule entering the cycle, making it more reactive
The oxidation of NADH results in the formation of more ATP molecules compared to the oxidation of FADH2 because
NADH enters the electron transport chain at an earlier point than FADH2
Examples of Potential Energy
1. Electrons in chemical bonds
2. Proton gradient
Rotenone blocks the protein that accepts electrons from NADH. Rotenone blocks ATP synthesis by
preventing the formation of a H+ ion concentration gradient
Cyanide + carbon monoxide block the enzyme that donates the electrons to oxygen forming water. Cyanide + carbon monoxide block ATP synthesis by
preventing the formation of a H+ ion concentration gradient
DNP makes the inner mitochondrial membrane permeable to H+ ions. DNP blocks ATP synthesis by
allowing H+ ions to cross the mitochondrial membrane without passing through ATP synthase
When NADH donates electrons to the electron transport chain, NADH is being
What may be used as energy sources to drive aerobic respiration?
proteins and fats
Autotrophs use the ___ to make organic molecules.
O2 is produced in the ___.
The light reactions involve a series of ___ conversions.
An electron carrier called ___ drives the Calvin cycle.
H2O provides ___ for the light reactions.
The energy for producing organic molecules in plants is directly driven by
the use of light to provide electrons for oxidation and reduction reactions
What is the source of electrons for photosynthesis?
What is oxidized in photosystem II?
What is the backbone of cellulose?
What is reduced in the Calvin cycle?
What enters the leaf through the stomata?
What leaves the leaf through the stomata?
The role of plant pigments in photosynthesis
absorb light energy
Photosystem I only
Photosystem II only
1. oxidizes water
2. produces oxygen
Photosystems I & II
1. Harvests light energy
2. Contains chlorophyll
What color of light has the highest energy?
What color of light has the lowest energy?
A green pigment likely ___ green light.
Chlorophyll a ___ best in red and blue light.
A 430 nm pigment likely absorbs ___ light.
Carotenoids absorb light in the blue and ___ regions of the spectrum.
The incorporation of CO2 into organic molecules is an example of
Photosynthesis uses ___ to produce ATP, NADPH, and O2.
___ captures the light energy for photosynthesis.
ATP and NADPH drive the ___.
The Calvin cycle performs ___ during photosynthesis.
Water is converted to oxygen and releases electrons in the ___.
In linear electron flow (noncyclic photophosphorylation), the electrons passed down through the electron transport system are obtained from
The correct sequence of events during linear electron flow (noncyclic photophosphorylation) is
Photosystem II —> ATP production —> Photosystem I —> NADPH production
When the light-harvesting complex absorbs light energy, it is eventually passed to P680 which emits an electron. Which of the following statements correctly describes the energy and electrons during this process?
Resonance energy was transferred to P680 causing it to become positively charged after losing a electron.
The Calvin cycle takes place in the ___ of chloroplasts.
The Calvin cycle uses ___, which are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
ATP and NADPH
How many times must the Calvin cycle turn to produce 10 glucose molecules?
A plant is grown in the presence of 14C labeled carbon dioxide. Place the molecules of the Calvin cycle in order based on where the label will first appear.
2. 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate
4. ribulose bisphosphate
What type of protein alters metabolism?
What type of protein is associated with the breakdown of molecules?
What type of protein alters cell shape?
What type of protein causes cell movement?
What type of protein regulates the activation gene expression?
What type of protein regulates the change in sex characteristics?
What would interfere with the binding of estrogen to the estrogen receptor?
A molecule that prevents estrogen from entering the nucleus.
Epinephrine inhibits salivary gland activity and muscle cell contraction in the airways, yet stimulates glycogen release in muscle cells and heart muscle cell contraction. How could one hormone have opposing effects on different organs?
Cells in the different tissues would have epinephrine receptors coupled to different signaling pathways.
diffuse through the cell membrane.
A cell has a mutation resulting in the aldosterone receptor being unable to efficiently bind DNA. What effect will this have on the cell?
The receptor will become active, but once inside the nucleus it will not be able to initiate transcription, so the signaling pathway will not elicit its response.
What is the advantage to the cell of a signaling molecule entering directly into the cell and binding to and activating a receptor that can induce transcription of DNA?
A change in gene expression can be quickly accomplished.
The alpha subunit of the G-protein is activated by
replacing the GDP with GTP.
A mutation in the G protein, decreasing its ability to hydrolyze its bound GTP, will have what effect on the cell signaling pathway in which it is involved?
The pathway will be overactivated.
cAMP is an example of a
1. Activation of G protein
2. Activation of adenylyl cyclase
3. Activation of protein kinase
Signal amplification involves
a single cell surface receptor that can activate many G proteins.
What is a result of signal amplification?
Small concentrations of extracellular signaling molecules can affect a rapid response from a cell.
The pairing of nitrogenous bases in DNA is specific because
functional groups on each of the bases form hydrogen bonds with functional groups on only one other base.
Beginning with the simplest level of structure, put the levels of organization of genetic material in order.
During the replication of a DNA molecule
new base pairs must be formed according to Chargaff's rule.
DNA replication is said to be
DNA polymerase occasionally makes errors and adds an incorrect base. A new strand of DNA is being produced, and the template strand contains a G. Based on your knowledge of the structure of DNA, why is it more likely that DNA polymerase would accidently add a T to the new strand instead of a G or an A?
Because the structure of T and C are similar as they both have a single ring.
DNA replication begins at an origin of replication, which expands to form two ___ moving in opposite directions.
DNA double helix is separated into single strands by the enzyme ___.
Newly-exposed, unreplicated DNA is protected by ___.
single-strand binding protein
Short segments of RNA, called ___, are synthesized.
The enzyme that synthesizes the RNA primers is an RNA polymerase called ___.
The short RNA primers provide a free ___ for replication.
New DNA is synthesized in the ___ direction.
5' to 3'
The enzyme that removes tightened coils ahead of the replication fork is ___.
The enzyme that catalyzes new DNA synthesis is ___.
DNA synthesis occurs continuously on the ___.
DNA synthesis occurs in small sections on the ___.
Fragments of discontinuous DNA synthesis are called ___.
Gaps in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA are closed by ___.
Similarities between bacterial DNA replication and eukaryotic DNA replication
1. Both bacterial and eukaryotic DNA replication occur in a bidirectional manner.
2. Both bacterial and eukaryotic DNA replication result in two DNA double helices that are both composed of one parental strand and one new strand.
3. Both bacterial and eukaryotic DNA replication use the same four nucleotides (A, C, G, and T).
The enzyme that unwinds a segment of the DNA molecule is
The enzyme that travels along a template strand, assembling nucleotides into a growing DNA strand, is
DNA polymerase III.
Before DNA polymerase can begin assembling DNA nucleotides to produce either the Okazaki fragments of the lagging strand or the continuous molecule of the leading strand, which must occur?
Primase constructs a short RNA primer.
A mutation results in the production of much less DNA ligase than normal. What would be a likely consequence?
DNA replication would occur, but replication of the lagging strand would take much longer than normal.
How do DNA polymerase I and DNA Polymerase III differ?
DNA polymerase III synthesizes the majority of the DNA, while DNA polymerase I synthesizes DNA in the regions where the RNA primers were laid down on the lagging strand.
DNA —> RNA
RNA —> Protein
At what point in gene expression do molecules go from being information storage molecules to metabolic and structurally functional molecules?
When RNA is translated into protein.
The molecule that carries information from the DNA specifying a polypeptide to ribosomes is
The synthesis of an RNA copy of a gene is
The synthesis of a specific sequence of amino acids on a ribosome is
A molecule found in the nucleus of cell that contains the cell's genome is
A molecule made of amino acids that correspond to the genetic information in a structural gene is
Islet cells in the pancreas secrete the protein insulin in a step by step process. Reconstruct the correct sequence of events.
Export of mRNA to cytoplasm > Translation on ribosomes on rough ER > Processing of polypeptide in Golgi
The complimentary messenger RNA strand that would be synthesized from the DNA base sequence of 5'-CTGAC-3' would be _______.
The structure that causes the synthesis of RNA to cease is known as the
In transcription, the goal is synthesis of ___.
In DNA replication, the goal is synthesis of ___.
RNA polymerase and primase both add nucleotides to a ___.
During ___, both strands of the DNA will function as a template.
During ___, only one strand of the DNA will function as a template.
The enzyme that is involved in replication but not transcription is ___.
What type of gene is transcribed with RNA Polymerase I?
tRNAs and rRNAs
What type of gene is transcribed with RNA Polymerase III?
tRNAs and rRNAs
What type of gene is transcribed with RNA Polymerase II?
What is a difference between bacterial and eukaryotic transcription?
In eukaryotes, there are different RNA polymerases (I, II, and III).
Which of the following statements about the segment of DNA below is TRUE?
There are two possible transcripts that are transcribed on opposite strands of the helix.
Splicing joins together two ___.
Of which type of molecules are spliceosomes composed?
RNA and protein
There is only one codon, 5'-UGG-3', for the amino acid tryptophan (trp), therefore the anticodon in the tRNA for tryptophan must have the sequence ___.
The amino terminus of a polypeptide will contain amino acids whose codons are closer to the ___ end of the mRNA.
The carboxyl terminus of a polypeptide will contain amino acids whose codons are closer to the ___ end of the mRNA.
Part of a gene sequence on the DNA reads 5'-ATGCGC-3'. The mRNA will therefore read ___ in that region.
The template strand of a gene includes the sequence 3'-AGT-5'. The mRNA will therefore have the sequence ___ in the same position.
Bases in the tRNA loops ___ pair with any other bases.
New amino acids (other than the initial f-Met) enter at which site?
Transfer RNA is released at which site?
f an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase added the wrong amino acid to a tRNA, what would happen?
The tRNA would carry the wrong amino acid, and the wrong amino acid would be incorporated into the growing protein.
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