Biology of Fish Exam 2 Review Questions

What is the difference between chronometric and chronostratic time?
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Terms in this set (46)
*Holotype - the individual specimen of a given species upon which the species' description is based.

*Paratype - a secondary type specimen of a given species that typically was collected the same time and place as the holotype.

*Allotype - a type specimen of a given species that is a paratype of the opposite sex from the holotype species.
What are the major contributions of Aristotle, Artedi, Agassiz, Jordan, Hubbs, and Randal to the study of ichthyology?In the history of ichthyology, what is the significance of Rosa Smith Eigenmann and her contributions to the discipline?Rosa Smith Eigenmann was the first female icthyologist of any significance; she is credited with describing approximately 150 species of fish.What are the Chordate subphyla and what characters do all chordates have in common?1) Urochordata 2) Cephalochordata 3) Vertebrata *All three subphyla share some morphological features (notochord, nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail)Was the likely ancestor to vertebrates a member of one of the other two chordate subphyla or perhaps some other invertebrate group?What is a conodont and why do we know so little about their diversity and evolution?What is meant by the term ostracoderm? What were the two major groups of ostracoderms and what did they have in common? What do we know about their feeding ecology?*Ostracoderm - reference to the earliest classes of fishes; consists of Pteraspidomorphi and Cephalaspidomorphi. Both groups were heavily-armored and heavily bodies organisms and were jawless; both groups were detritivores.What are the two extant groups of aganthans? How diverse is each?1) Myxini - hagfishes 2) Petromyzontiformes - lampreysWhat are the two major life histories seen in lampreys and what role does feeding ecology play in each?1) Parasitic feeding habits as adults. 2) Ammocoete (lives in mud and feeds on microorganisms) larvae and filter-feed plankton.Where do hagfishes live? Describe their feeding ecology.Hagfish live in deep-cold water environments; usually scavengers (use olfaction to find prey)When did placoderms and acanthodians live on the planet?Devonian PeriodIf acanthodians are called "spiny sharks," why are they thought to be a sister group to osteichthyan fishes? What characters do they have in common?thought to be sister group to osteichthyan fishes due to relatively advanced jaws at the time; common characters include otoliths, lateral-line canals, ossified operculum, and branchiostegals.What groups of fishes were alive during the Devonian? What novel anatomical characters appeared during this period and why is known as the Age of Fishes?1) Acanthodians 2) Placoderms 3) Chondrichthyes 4) Sarcopterygii 5) Actinopterygii *Two new characters appeared in early Devonian: jaws and paired fins; known as Age of Fishes due to the diverse array of primitive jawless fish groups at the time and the massive adaptive radiation that follows evolution of jaws and paired fins.When and what was the Cambrian Explosion? What evidence exists to support this?*Cambrian Explosion - rapid appearance of most major animal phyla accompanied by major diversification of organisms including animals, phytoplankton, and calcimicrobes; occurred 525 MA; several areas around the planet have rich fossil deposits dating to early Cambrian to support the claim (Burgess Shale)What is the process of plate tectonics? What discovery did Hess make that supports this theory?What were Pangea and the Tethys Sea? When did they exist and when did they cease to exist?What and when was the K-T extinction event? What caused this and what were the results?What are the four subdivisions of teleosts?What is the most evolutionarily advanced order of extant bony fishes and what are general characters shared by fishes in this order?What is the character that all Osteoglossomorpha species share? What is distinctive about the brain mass to body mass ratio for fishes in Family: Mormyridae?What is the character that unites all elopomorph fishes? What variability in feeding ecology exists among elopomorph larvae?Describe the life cycles of Anguilla rostrata and Anguilla anguilla. Where do these animals spawn and how do they get there?Where do fishes in Order: Saccopharyngiformes live? What is distinctive about their feeding ecology?What are the two predominant families within Subdivision: Clupeomorpha? What similarities do these fishes have with respect to feeding ecology and life history?What role do clupeomorph fishes play in the food webs of eastern boundary current upwelling zones? What are some general characteristics of fisheries for clupeomorph fishes in those ecosystems?What superorder of fishes dominates freshwater systems on all continents except Australia and Antarctica? What are 4 characters that fishes in this superorder share?What are three characters shared by fishes in Superorder: Protacanthopterygii? What is the range of habitats occupied by Protacanthopterygians?Where do Stenopterygians live in the water column? What role doe these fishes play in the ecosystems where they are found?Among fishes in Superorder: Cyclosquamata, which are important mesopredators in Florida estuarine and marine benthic habitats?What is the predominant family within Superorder: Scopelomorpha? Where do these fishes live and what is their ecological significance?What are the five orders within Superorder: Paracanothopterygii? Which of these orders contains the anglerfishes, and what is distinctive about their morphology and feeding ecology? Which order supports important groundfish fisheries around the globe?What are the three series of Acanthopterygian fishes, and what characters do they share? What is distinctive about their fin elements relative to other teleosts?Describe the feeding ecology and reproductive biology of the striped mullet, Mugil cephalus, in Florida. What is significant about its annual migrations for the productivity of continental shelf ecosystems?What characters do atherinomorph fishes share and where are they typically found in the water column? Describe the ecological significance of flyingfishes in epipelagic ecosystems.What is the most speciose order of extant fishes? What are general trends in body size and morphology observed in these fishes?What is distinctive about the spines in scorpaeniform fishes?What is distinctive about metamorphosis in pleuronectiform fishes, and what is the common morphological character shared by adults among these species?