AP Human Geography Chapter 4

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Terms in this set (...)

Culture
The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
Folk Culture
Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Popular Culture
Cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies.
Local Culture
A group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others.
Material Culture
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
Non Material Culture
The beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values , of a group of people.
Hierarchical Diffusion
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples.
Hearth
The area where an idea or cultural trait originates.
Assimilation
The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits such as dress, speech particularities, or mannerisms, when they come in contact with another society or culture.
Custom
Practice routinely followed by a group of people.
Cultural Appropriation
The process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit.
Neolocalism
seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
Ethnic Neighborhood
Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or composed of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs.
Commodification
The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.
Authenticity
In the context of local cultures or customs, the accuracy with which a single stereotypical or typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs.
Distance Decay
The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
Time Space Compression
A term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity.
Reterritorialization
With respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own.
Cultural Landscape
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
Placelessness
Defined by the geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next.
Global Local Continuum
The notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa.
Glocalization
The process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes.
Folk-Housing Region
a region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area
diffusion routes
the spatial trajectory through which the cultural traits or other phenomena spread
What is folk culture?
Folk culture is traditionally practiced by primarily small homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas and include a custom ex: sarong or a sari
What is popular culture?
Is found in large heterogenous societies that share certain habits despot differences ex: blue jeans
Habit vs custom
A habit is a respective act of an individual person, while a custom is the repetitive act of a group and becomes a characteristic of the group(ex: American uni students wear jeans to class)
Where does culture originate?
They originate in a particular environment
Folk culture vs popular culture hearths
Folk culture: anonymous hearths, originating from anonymous sources at unknown dates
Popular culture: product of MDCs - especially North America, Western Europe and Japan (ex: fast food & music)
Diffusion of popular culture
Hierarchical : the film industry
Diffusion of folk culture
Relocation diffusion: Amish
Popular culture distribution
Varies more with time than place. Rapid diffusion depends on group of people with high level economic development to acquire material possessions associated with popular culture
Isolation & Environment Folk Culture
stops it from diffusing, limited communication , they develop unique customs that originate from environment
Folk vs. Pop songs
Folk songs generally have to do with daily activities ( farming, life-cycling events , or mysterious events
Popular songs are written for a specific audience for the purpose of being sold. It requires degree if technical skill and studio w/ electronics
Folk & pop culture and diffusion of sports
Folk culture- soccer was a "folk" sport because origin was obscure however turned popular with the globalization after Britain organized recreation for leisure. Later organized clubs were created with professional players.
Popular- each country has own preferred sports
Material culture
3 most important necessities:
Food
Clothing
Shelter
Folk and Popular Clothing
Folk- tend to be influenced by environment because of limited technology
Popular - depend on current popular clothing affected by MDCs influence
Jeans in Popular Culture
Became a symbol of western popular culture - acquired image of youthful independence. In communist Eastern Europe people worked hard to get jeans because they were expensive. With the end of communism they retained American image
Taboo
Restriction on behavior imposed by social custom

Hebrew: prohibited from eating a wide variety of foods
Arose from concern for the environment

Muslim: prevented from eating pork

Hindu: against consuming cows
Popular food culture
Trends- tends to be affects by amount of leisure time, income, and inclination .

Preference vary with region:
Often depend on religios background and income & advertising (ex: wind spatial distribution)
Environmental Influence on Folk housing
Type of building material influenced y resources available in the environment
Most common are wood and brick; stone, grass did and skins
3 Major hearths of folk house forms
The lower Chesapeake: migrants spread houses to tidewater, virginia - raised on piers or brick foundation

The middle Atlantic: known as "I" house typically two stories . Migrants carriers house type westward to Appalachian trails.

New England: migrants carried house type northward to upper New England & westward
Worlds most important electronic media format is?
Television its also the most popular leisure activity in the world
What is the diffusion of internet and pace compared on tv
The diffusion of internet was more rapid than the tv diffusion and the diffusion of social media is more faster than the internet
How does electronic media affect folk culture?
Electronic media affects folk culture by taking away their culture and making it not unique
Threat of foreign media influence?
It's a threat because so cultures in other counties doesn't agree with what's being put on the media
What are the three MDCs that dominate the television industry?
North Africa, South America, and Asia
LCD vs MDCs who controls the media?
The United States
How did social media affects MDCs?
It affects their independence by having cultural imperialism
India and the issues with bride dowries?
The price for the brides dad paying for the wedding increased because of social diffusion and it changed the custom of having the bride paying to having the groom paying
Diffusion of fast food restaurants with pop culture and uniform landscape?
The same chain restaurants are showing up in cities by each other and it is becoming a global diffusion by chain restaurants spreading to different countries
Can pop culture cause environmental damage?
Yes because it can cause modifying environments such as golf courses