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140 terms


The infection streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) is caused by a
A. virus.
B. fungus.
C. protozoon.
D. bacterium
Muscles that contribute to the formation of the rotator cuff include the
1. subscapularis.
2. infraspinatus.
3. teres minor.
To better demonstrate the mandibular rami in the PA position, the
A. skull is obliqued toward the affected side.
B. skull is obliqued away from the affected side.
C. central ray is angled cephalad.
D. central ray is angled caudad.
central ray is angled cephalad.
AP erect left and right bending images of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, to include 1 inch of the iliac crest, are performed to demonstrate
A. spondylolisthesis.
B. subluxation.
C. scoliosis.
D. arthritis.
Excessive anode heating can cause vaporized tungsten to be deposited on the port window. This can result in
1. decreased tube output.
2. tube failure.
3. electrical sparking.
A satisfactory radiograph was made without a grid, using a 72-inch SID and 8 mAs. If the distance is changed to 40 inches and an 8:1 ratio grid is added, what should be the new mAs?
A. 10 mAs
B. 18 mAs
C. 20 mAs
D. 32 mAs
10 mAs
Which of the following will reduce patient dose during fluoroscopy?
1. Decreasing the source-skin distance (SSD)
2. Using 2.5 mm Al filtration
3. Restricting tabletop intensity to less than 10 R/min
2 and 3 only
The true lateral position of the skull uses which of the following principles?
1. Interpupillary line perpendicular to the IR
2. MSP perpendicular to the IR
3. Infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) parallel to the transverse axis of the IR
1 and 3 only
Guidelines for the use of protective shielding state that gonadal shielding should be used
1. if the patient has reasonable reproductive potential.
2. when the gonads are within 5 cm of the collimated field.
3. when tight collimation is not possible.
1 and 2 only
Which of the following sites are commonly used for an intravenous injection?
1. Antecubital vein
2. Basilic vein
3. Popliteal vein
1 and 2 only
Which of the following devices is used to control voltage by varying resistance?
A. Autotransformer
B. High-voltage transformer
C. Rheostat
D. Fuse
Which of the following information is necessary to determine the maximum safe kVp, using the appropriate x-ray tube rating chart?
1. mA and exposure time
2. Focal spot size
3. Imaging-system speed
1 and 2 only
For exposure to 1 rad of each of the following ionizing radiations, which would result in the greatest dose to the individual?
A. External source of 1-MeV x-rays
B. External source of diagnostic x-rays
C. Internal source of alpha particles
D. External source of beta particles
Internal source of alpha particles
When a GI series has been requested on a patient with a suspected perforated ulcer, the type of contrast medium that should be used is
A. thin barium sulfate suspension.
B. thick barium sulfate suspension.
C. water-soluble iodinated media.
D. oil-based iodinated media.
water-soluble iodinated media.
Which of the following medications commonly found on emergency carts functions to raise blood pressure?
A. Heparin
B. Norepinephrine
C. Nitroglycerin
D. Lidocaine
Which of the following conditions describes a patient who is unable to breathe easily while in the recumbent position?
A. Dyspnea
B. Apnea
D. Oligopnea
Which of the following examinations involves the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium through a uterine cannula?
A. Retrograde pyelogram
B. Voiding cystourethrogram
C. Hysterosalpingogram
D. Myelogram
Which of the following is another name for an intermittent injection port?
A. Hypodermic needle
B. Butterfly needle
C. Heparin lock
D. Intravenous (IV) infusion
Heparin lock
When an image intensifier's magnification mode is used,
1. output screen gain is increased.
2. resolution increases.
3. patient dose increases.
2 and 3 only
Which of the following positions would best demonstrate the left apophyseal articulations of the lumbar vertebrae?
C. Left lateral
Which of the following examinations require(s) special identification markers in addition to the usual patient name and number, date, and side marker?
1. IVU
2. Tomography
3. Abdominal survey
Which of the following is most likely to occur as a result of using a 30-inch SID with a 14 x 17-inch IR to radiograph a fairly homogeneous structure?
A. Production of quantum mottle
B. Density variation between opposite ends of the IR
C. Production of scatter radiation fog
D. Excessively short-scale contrast
Density variation between opposite ends of the IR
All of the following bones are associated with condyles except the
A. femur.
B. tibia.
C. fibula.
D. mandible.
Proper body mechanics includes a wide base of support. The base of support is the portion of the body
A. in contact with the floor or other horizontal surface.
B. in the midportion of the pelvis or lower abdomen.
C. passing through the center of gravity.
D. none of the above.
in contact with the floor or other horizontal surface
Which of the following devices is used to overcome severe variation in patient anatomy or tissue density, providing more uniform radiographic density?
A. Compensating filter
B. Grid
C. Collimator
D. Intensifying screen
Compensating filter
The medical term for congenital clubfoot is
A. coxa plana.
B. osteochondritis.
C. talipes.
D. muscular dystrophy.
If the exposure rate to a body standing 5 feet from a radiation source is 10 mR/min, what will be the dose to that body at a distance of 8 feet from the source?
A. 25.6 mR/min
B. 16 mR/min
C. 6.25 mR/min
D. 3.9 mR/min
3.9 mR/min
Which of the following bony landmarks is in the same transverse plane as the symphysis pubis?
A. Ischial tuberosity
B. Prominence of the greater trochanter
C. Anterior superior iliac spine
D. Anterior inferior iliac spine
Prominence of the greater trochanter
The four major arteries supplying the brain include the
1. brachiocephalic artery.
2. common carotid arteries.
3. vertebral arteries.
2 and 3 only
Which of the following is a condition in which an occluded blood vessel stops blood flow to a portion of the lungs?
A. Pneumothorax
B. Atelectasis
C. Pulmonary embolism
D. Hypoxia
Pulmonary embolism
The presence of dust or scratches on intensifying screens will cause
A. decreased density in those areas of the image.
B. increased density in those areas of the image.
C. decreased density in all areas of the image.
D. increased density in all areas of the image
decreased density in those areas of the image.
Which of the following is (are) composed of nondividing, differentiated cells?
1. Neurons and neuroglia
2. Epithelial tissue
3. Lymphocytes
A 1 only
Posterior displacement of a tibial fracture would be best demonstrated in the
A. AP projection.
B. lateral projection.
C. medial oblique projection.
D. lateral oblique projection.
lateral projection.
In the AP projection of an asthenic patient whose knee measures less than 19 cm from ASIS to tabletop, the central ray should be directed
A. perpendicularly.
B. 5° medially.
C. 5° cephalad.
D. 5° caudad.
5° caudad.
Which of the following is a measurement of dose to biologic tissue?
A. Roentgen (C/kg)
B. Rad (Gy)
C. Rem (Sv)
Rem (Sv)
To evaluate the interphalangeal joints in the oblique and lateral positions, the fingers
A. rest on the cassette for immobilization.
B. must be supported parallel to the IR.
C. are radiographed in natural flexion.
D. are radiographed in palmar flexion.
must be supported parallel to the IR
Which of the following radiation exposure responses exhibit a nonlinear threshold dose-response relationship?
1. Skin erythema
2. Hematologic depression
3. Lethality
A focal spot size of 0.3 mm or smaller is essential for
A. small-bone radiography.
B. magnification radiography.
C. tomography.
D. fluoroscopy.
magnification radiography.
The process of radiation passing through tissue and depositing energy through ionization processes is known as
A. the characteristic effect.
B. Compton scatter.
C. linear energy transfer.
D. the photoelectric effect.
linear energy transfer.
When radiographing the elderly, it is helpful to
1. move quickly.
2. address them by their full name.
3. give straightforward instructions.
2 and 3 only
In which of the following positions/projections will the talocalcaneal joint be visualized?
A. Dorsoplantar projection of the foot
B. Plantodorsal projection of the os calcis
C. Medial oblique position of the foot
D. Lateral foot
Plantodorsal projection of the os calcis
TV camera tubes used in image intensification, such as the Plumbicon and Vidicon, function to
A. increase the brightness of the input phosphor image.
B. transfer the output phosphor image to the TV monitor.
C. focus and accelerate electrons toward the output phosphor.
D. record the output phosphor image on 16- or 35- film.
transfer the output phosphor image to the TV monitor.
Which of the following personnel monitoring devices used in diagnostic radiography is considered to be the most sensitive and accurate?
B. Film badge
D. Pocket dosimeter
Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to the differences between the male and female bony pelvis?
1. The female pelvic outlet is wider.
2. The pubic angle is 90° or less in the male.
3. The male pelvis is more shallow.
1 and 2 only
When a radiographer is obtaining a patient history, both subjective and objective data should be obtained. An example of subjective data is that
A.the pt appears to have a productive cough.
B. the pt has a blood pressure of 130/95.
C. pt states that he experiences extreme pain in the upright position.
D. the patient has a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the left breast.
the patient states that he experiences extreme pain in the upright position.
Which of the following defines the gonadal dose that, if received by every member of the population, would be expected to produce the same total genetic effect on that population as the actual doses received by each of the individuals?
A. Genetically significant dose
B. Somatically significant dose
C. Maximum permissible dose
D. Lethal dose
A. Genetically significant dose
Image quality in digital fluoroscopy is influenced by
1. pixel size.
2. contrast.
3. noise.
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommends an annual occupational effective (stochastic) dose equivalent limit of
A. 50 mSv (5 rem).
B. 100 mSv (10 rem).
C. 25 mSv (2.5 rem).
D. 200 mSv (20 rem).
50 mSv (5 rem).
Which of the following will separate the radial head, neck, and tuberosity from superimposition on the ulna?
B. Lateral
C. Medial oblique
D. Lateral oblique
Lateral oblique
A cathartic is used to
A. induce vomiting.
B. stimulate defecation.
C. promote elimination of urine.
D. inhibit coughing.
stimulate defecation
The darkroom should be constructed and equipped so as to avoid
1. external light leaks.
2. film bin light leaks.
3. safelight fog.
All of the following statements regarding dual x-ray absorptiometry are true, except
1. radiation dose is considerable.
2. two x-ray photon energies are used.
3. photon attenuation by bone is calculated.
1 only
A "blowout fracture" usually occurs in which aspect of the orbital wall?
A. Superior
B. Inferior
C. Medial
D. Lateral
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) usually involves
1.cannulation of the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
2. introduction of contrast medium into the common bile duct.
3. introduction of barium directly into the duodenum.
To demonstrate the first two cervical vertebrae in the AP projection, the patient is positioned so that
A. the glabellomeatal line is vertical.
B. the acanthiomeatal line is vertical.
C. a line between the mentum and the mastoid tip is vertical.
D. a line between the maxillary occlusal plane and the mastoid tip is vertical.
a line between the maxillary occlusal plane and the mastoid tip is vertical.
Dedicated radiographic units are available for
1. chest radiography.
2. head radiography.
3. mammography.
Component part(s) of x-ray film include the following:
1. Phosphor layer
2. Gelatin emulsion
3. Adhesive layer
2 and 3 only
An increase in the kilovoltage applied to the x-ray tube increases the
1. percentage of high-energy photons produced.
2. exposure rate.
3. patient absorption.
1 and 2 only
Which of the following techniques is used to evaluate the dynamics of a part?
A. Fluoroscopy
B. Stereoscopy
C. Tomography
D. Phototiming
Which of the following groups of exposure factors would be most effective in eliminating prominent pulmonary vascular markings in an RAO position of the sternum?
A. 500 mA, 1/30 second, 70 kVp
B. 200 mA, 0.04 second, 80 kVp
C. 300 mA, 1/10 second, 80 kVp
D. 25 mA, 7/10 second, 70 kVp
25 mA, 7/10 second, 70 kVp
Which of the following are demonstrated in the oblique position of the cervical spine?
1. Intervertebral foramina
2. Apophyseal joints
3. Intervertebral joints
1 only
With a patient suffering abdominal pain, it is frequently helpful to
1. elevate the head slightly with a pillow.
2. perform the examination in the Trendelenburg position.
3. place a support under the knees.
1 and 3 only
Circuit devices that will conduct electrons in only one direction are
1. resistors.
2. valve tubes.
3. solid-state diodes.
2 and 3 only
An inanimate object that has been in contact with an infectious microorganism is termed a
A. vector.
B. fomite.
C. host.
D. reservoir.
How many HVLs are required to reduce the intensity of a beam of monoenergetic photons to less than 10% of its original value?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5
The answer is C.
EXPLANATION: An HVL may be defined as the amount and thickness of absorber necessary to reduce the radiation intensity to half its original value. Thus, the first HVL would reduce the intensity to 50% of its original value, the second to 25%, the third to 12.5%, and the fourth to 6.25% of its original value.
Which of the following is the correct formula for determining heat units for a three-phase, 12-pulse x-ray machine?
A. kVp x mA x time
B. mA x kVp x mAs
C. kVp x mAs x 1.35
D. mA x time x kVp x 1.41
mA x time x kVp x 1.41
In which of the following portions of the x-ray circuit is a step-down transformer located?
A. High-voltage side
B. Filament circuit
C. Rectification system
D. Secondary side
Filament circuit
For which of the following examinations can the anode heel effect be an important consideration?
1. Lateral thoracic spine
2. AP femur
3. RAO sternum
1,2 only
Which of the following is (are) important for patient protection during fluoroscopic procedures?
1. Intermittent fluoroscopy
2. Fluoroscopic field size
3. Focus-to-table distance
To within what percentage of the SID must the collimator light and actual irradiated area be accurate?
A. 2%
B. 5%
C. 10%
D. 15%
The esophagus commences at about the level of
A. C3.
B. C6.
C. T1.
D. T11
Which of the following radiologic examinations can demonstrate ureteral reflux?
A. IV urogram
B. Retrograde pyelogram
C. Voiding cystourethrogram
D. Nephrotomogram
Voiding cystourethrogram
Which of the following can result from improper film storage or darkroom conditions?
1. Safelight fog
2. Background radiation fog
3. Screen lag
1 and 2 only
Substituting intensifying screens having a speed of 200 in place of a 100-speed system will
1. require one half of the exposure of 100-speed screens.
2. increase the production of scattered radiation.
3. enable the radiographer to decrease the exposure time.
1 and 3 only
All of the following are associated with the anode except
A. the line focus principle.
B. the heel effect.
C. the focal track.
D. thermionic emission
thermionic emission
Abnormal accumulation of air in pulmonary tissues, resulting in overdistention of the alveolar spaces, is
A. emphysema.
B. empyema.
C. pneumothorax.
D. pneumoconiosis.
Compared to a low ratio grid, a high ratio grid will
1. absorb more primary radiation.
2. absorb more scattered radiation.
3. allow more centering latitude.
1 and 2 only
Which of the following articulations participate(s) in formation of the ankle mortise?
1. Talotibial
2. Talocalcaneal
3. Talofibular
1 and 3 only
A lateral radiograph of the lumbar spine was made using 200 mA, 1-second exposure, and 90 kVp. If the exposure factors were changed to 200 mA, 1/2 second, and 104 kVp, there would be an obvious change in which of the following?
1. Radiographic density
2. Scale of radiographic contrast
3. Distortion
2 only
Which of the following is an abnormal intensifying screen action?
A. Fluorescence
B. Luminescence
C. Speed
D. Lag
If the quantity of black metallic silver on a particular radiograph is such that it allows 1% of the illuminator light to pass through the x-ray image, that image has a density of
A. 0.01.
B. 0.1.
C. 1.0.
D. 2.0.
A technique chart should be prepared for each AEC x-ray unit and should contain the following information for each type of examination:
1. Photocell(s) used
2. Optimum kVp
3. Backup time
1, 2, and 3
The term effective dose refers to
A. whole-body dose.
B.localized organ dose.
C. genetic effects.
D. somatic and genetic effects
A. whole-body dose.
Which of the following pathologic conditions will probably require a decrease in exposure factors?
A. Osteomyelitis
B. Osteoporosis
C. Osteosclerosis
D. Osteochondritis
Which of the following positions is obtained with the patient lying prone recumbent on the radiographic table, and the central ray directed horizontally to the iliac crest?
A. Ventral decubitus position
B. Dorsal decubitus position
C. Left lateral decubitus position
D. Right lateral decubitus position
Ventral decubitus position
The recommendation of "elective booking" states that elective abdominal radiographic examinations on women of reproductive age should be limited to the
A. 10 days following the menses.
B. 10 days following the onset of menses.
C. 10 days before the onset of menses.
D. last 10 days of the menstrual cycle.
10 days following the onset of menses
Which of the following can be used to demonstrate the intercondyloid fossa?
1. Patient PA, knee flexed 40°, central ray directed caudad 40° to the popliteal fossa
2. Patient AP, cassette under flexed knee, central ray directed cephalad to knee, perpendicular to tibia
3. Patient PA, patella parallel to IR, heel rotated 5° to 10° lateral, central ray perpendicular to knee joint
1 and 2 only
Resolution in computed radiography increases as
1. laser beam size decreases
2. monitor matrix size decreases
3. PSP crystal size decreases
1 and 3 only
Use your mouse to drag the following bony structures into order (A-D) from lateral to medial.
A. Trapezoid
B. Capitate
C. Hamate
D. Trapezium
The answer is D:A:B:C.
Which of the following groups of exposure factors will deliver the least amount of exposure to the patient?
A. 400 mA, 0.25 second, 100 kVp
B. 600 mA, 0.33 second, 90 kVp
C. 800 mA, 0.5 second, 80 kVp
D. 800 mA, 1.0 second, 70 kVp
400 mA, 0.25 second, 100 kVp
A particular radiograph was produced using 6 mAs and 110 kVp with an 8:1 ratio grid. The radiograph is to be repeated using a 16:1 ratio grid. What should be the new mAs?
A. 3
B. 6
C. 9
D. 12
The tarsals and metatarsals are arranged to form the
1. transverse arch.
2. longitudinal arch.
3. oblique arch.
1 and 2 only
The patient is usually required to drink barium sulfate suspension in order to demonstrate which of the following structure(s)?
1. Cecum
2. Ilium
3. Stomach
3 only
In the lateral projection of the scapula, the
1. vertebral and axillary borders are superimposed.
2. acromion and coracoid processes are superimposed.
3. patient may be examined in the erect position.
1 and 3 only
If an individual receives 50 mR while standing 4 feet from a source of radiation for 2 minutes, which of the options listed below will most effectively reduce his or her radiation exposure to that source of radiation?
A. Standing 3 feet from the source for 2 minutes
B. Standing 8 feet from the source for 2 minutes
C. Standing 5 feet from the source for 1 minute
D. Standing 6 feet from the source for 2 minutes
Standing 8 feet from the source for 2 minutes
Capacitor discharge mobile x-ray units use capacitors to power the
1. the x-ray tube.
2. machine locomotion.
3. the braking mechanism
1 only
Which of the following procedures requires that the patient be placed in the lithotomy position?
A. Myelography
B. Venography
C. T-tube cholangiography
D. Hysterosalpingography
Compression of the breast during mammographic imaging improves the technical quality of the image because
1. geometric blurring is decreased.
2. less scattered radiation is produced.
3. patient motion is reduced.
An incorrect relationship between the primary beam and the center of a focused grid results in
1. an increase in scattered radiation production.
2. grid cutoff.
3. insufficient radiographic density.
2 and 3 only
Which of the following developing agents has the biggest impact on the shoulder of the characteristic curve?
A. Sodium thiosulfate
B. Phenidone
C. Hydroquinone
D. Glutaraldehyde
Sources of natural background radiation exposure include
1. the food we eat.
2. air travel.
3. medical and dental x-rays.
1 and 2 only
The reduction in the intensity of an x-ray beam as it passes through material is termed
A. absorption.
B. scattering.
C. attenuation.
D. divergence
ith which of the following does the trapezium articulate?
A. Fifth metacarpal
B. First metacarpal
C. Distal radius
D. Distal ulna
First metacarpal
The tissue that occupies the central cavity within the shaft of a long bone in an adult is
A. red marrow.
B. yellow marrow.
C. cortical tissue.
D. cancellous tissue.
yellow marrow.
Although the stated focal spot size is measured directly under the actual focal spot, focal spot size really varies along the length of the x-ray beam. At which portion of the x-ray beam is the effective focal spot the largest?
A. At its outer edge
B. Along the path of the central ray
C. At the cathode end
D. At the anode end
At the cathode end
The primary parts of the cathode include the
1. focal track.
2. filament.
3. focusing cup.
2 and 3 only
Techniques that function to reduce the spread of microbes are termed
A. surgical asepsis.
B. medical asepsis.
C. sterilization.
D. disinfection.
B. medical asepsis.
Image receptors/cassettes frequently have a lead foil layer behind the rear screen that functions to
A. improve penetration.
B. absorb backscatter.
C. preserve resolution.
D. increase the screen speed
absorb backscatter.
Which of the following statements are true regarding radiographic examination of the acromioclavicular joints?
1. The procedure is performed in the erect position.
2. The use of weights helps demonstrate small joint changes.
3. Weights are avoided if dislocation or separation is suspected.
1 and 2 only
Which of the following conditions will require an increase in x-ray photon energy/penetration?
A. Fibrosarcoma
C. Paralytic ileus
D. Ascites
Star and wye configurations are related to
A. autotransformers.
B. three-phase transformers.
C. rectification systems.
D. automatic exposure controls.
three-phase transformers.
Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the PA axial projection of the cranium?
1. The central ray is directed caudally to the OML.
2. The petrous pyramids are projected into the lower third of the orbits.
3. The frontal sinuses are visualized.
In which of the following situations should a radiographer wear protective eye gear (goggles)?
1. When performing an upper GI radiography examination
2. When assisting the radiologist during an angiogram
3. When assisting the radiologist in a biopsy/aspiration procedure
c 2,3
If the quantity of black metallic silver on a particular radiograph is such that it allows 1% of the illuminator light to pass through the image, that image has a density of
A. 0.01.
B. 0.1.
C. 1.0.
D. 2.0.
D. 2.0.
A radiograph exposed using a 12:1 ratio grid may exhibit a loss of density at its lateral edges because the
A. SID was too great.
B. grid failed to move during the exposure.
C. x-ray tube was angled in the direction of the lead strips.
D. central ray was off-center.
SID was too great
If 92 kV and 12 mAs were used for a particular abdominal exposure with single-phase equipment, what mAs would be required to produce a similar radiograph with three-phase, six-pulse equipment?
A. 36
B. 24
C. 8
D. 6
What is the approximate entrance skin exposure (ESE) for the average AP supine lumbar spine radiograph?
A. 350 rad
B. 350 mrad
C. 35 rad
D. 35 mrad
The answer is B.

EXPLANATION: Patients will occasionally question the radiographer regarding the amount of radiation they are receiving during their examination. Most of these patients are merely curious because they have heard a recent news report about x-rays, or have perhaps studied about x-rays in school recently. It is a good idea for radiographers to have some knowledge of average exposure doses for patients who desire this information. The curious patient can also be referred to the medical physicist for more detailed information. The average AP supine lumbar spine radiograph delivers an ESE of about 350 mrad (0.35 rad). The average AP supine abdomen delivers about 300 mrad; the average AP cervical spine is about 80 mrad
Stochastic effects of radiation are those that
1. have a threshold.
2. may be described as "all-or-nothing" effects.
3. are late effects.
2 and 3 only
Radiographs from a particular single-phase, full-wave-rectified x-ray unit were overexposed, using known correct exposures. A spinning top test was performed at 200 mA, 0.05-second, and 70 kVp, and eight dots were visualized on the finished film. Which of the following is indicated?
AThe 0.05-second time station is inaccurate.
B. The 200-mA station is inaccurate.
C. A rectifier is not functioning.
D. The processor needs servicing
The answer is A.
EXPLANATION: The spinning top test is used to test timer accuracy or rectifier operation. Because single-phase, full-wave-rectified current has 120 useful impulses per second, a 1-second exposure of the spinning top should demonstrate 120 dots. Therefore, a 0.05-second exposure should demonstrate six dots. Anything more or less than that indicates that the time station needs calibration. If exactly one half of the expected number of dots appears, one should suspect rectifier failure
Exposure factors of 80 kVp and 8 mAs are used for a particular nongrid exposure. What should be the new mAs if an 8:1 grid is added?
A. 16 mAs
B. 24 mAs
C. 32 mAs
D. 40 mAs
C. 32 mAs
No grid = 1 x original mAs
5:1 grid = 2 x original mAs
6:1 grid = 3 x original mAs
8:1 grid = 4 x original mAs
12:1 grid = 5 x original mAs
16:1 grid = 6 x original mAs
Which of the following is the preferred scheduling sequence?
A. Lower GI, abdomen ultrasound, upper GI
B. Abdomen ultrasound, lower GI, upper GI
C. Abdomen ultrasound, upper GI, lower GI
D. Upper GI, lower GI, abdomen ultrasound
B. Abdomen ultrasound, lower GI, upper G
Which of the following combinations will result in the most scattered radiation reaching the image receptor?
A. Using more mAs and compressing the part
B. Using more mAs and a higher ratio grid
C. Using fewer mAs and more kVp
D. Using more mAs and less kVp
Using fewer mAs and more kVp
What are the effects of scattered radiation on the radiographic image?
1. It produces fog.
2. It increases contrast.
3. It increases grid cutoff.
A. 1 only
Scattered radiation is produced as x-ray photons travel through matter, interact with atoms, and are scattered (change direction). If these scattered rays are energetic enough to exit the body, they will strike the IR from all different angles. They therefore do not carry useful information and merely produce a flat, gray (low-contrast) fog over the image. Grid cutoff increases contrast and is caused by an improper relationship between the x-ray tube and the grid, resulting in absorption of some of the useful/primary beam
An increase in the kilovoltage applied to the x-ray tube increases the
1. x-ray wavelength.
2. exposure rate.
3. patient absorption.
2. exposure rate.
The advantage(s) of collimators over aperture diaphragms and flare cones include(s)
1. the variety of field sizes available.
2. more efficient beam restriction.
3. better cleanup of scattered radiation
1 and 2 only
An optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter contains which of the following detectors?
B. Aluminum oxide
C. Lithium fluoride
D. Photographic film
Aluminum oxide
During chest radiography, the act of inspiration
1. elevates the diaphragm.
2. raises the ribs.
3. depresses the abdominal viscera.
All of the following are components of the image intensifier, except the
A. photocathode.
B. focusing lenses.
C. TV monitor.
D. accelerating anode
TV monitor.
what portion of the humerus articulates with the ulna to help form the elbow joint?
A. Semilunar/trochlear notch
B. Radial head
C. Capitulum
D. Trochlea
What is used to account for the differences in ionizing characteristics of various radiations, when determining their effect on biologic material?
1. Radiation weighting factors (Wr)
2. Tissue weighting factors (Wt)
3. Absorbed dose
1 only
A patient suffering from orthopnea would experience the least discomfort in which body position?
A. Fowler's
B. Trendelenburg
C. Recumbent
D. Erect
A 15% increase in kVp accompanied by a 50% decrease in mAs will result in a(n)
A. shorter scale of contrast.
B. increase in exposure latitude.
C. increase in radiographic density.
D. decrease in recorded detail.
B. increase in exposure latitude.
Use your mouse to drag the following tissues into order (A-D) from lowest weighting factor (Wt) to highest weighting factor.
A. Breast
C. Bone marrow
B. Lung
D. Skin
A patient is usually required to drink a barium sulfate suspension in order to demonstrate which of the following structures?
1. Pylorus
2. Sigmoid
3. Ilium.
1 only
Federal regulations regarding infection control in the workplace, as amended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), make the following requirements:
1. Hepatitis B immunizations must be made available to all hospital employees.
2. Puncture-proof containers must be provided for all used needles.
3. Follow-up care must be provided to any staff accidentally exposed to blood splash/needle stick.
2 and 3 only
If a radiograph exhibits insufficient density, this might be attributed to
1. inadequate kVp.
2. inadequate SID.
3. grid cutoff.
1 and 3 only
All of the following are palpable bony landmarks used in radiography of the pelvis except the
A. femoral neck.
B. pubic symphysis.
C. greater trochanter.
D. iliac crest.
femoral neck
Which of the following is recommended to demonstrate small amounts of air within the peritoneal cavity?
A. Lateral decubitus, affected side up
B. Lateral decubitus, affected side down
C. AP Trendelenburg
D. AP supine
Lateral decubitus, affected side up
What is (are) the major effect(s) of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) irradiation?
1. Malignant disease
2. Chromosome aberration
3. Cell death
1, 2, and 3
Inherent and added filtration in the x-ray tube functions to
A. reduce patient skin dose.
B. shorten the scale of contrast.
C. reduce scattered radiation.
D. soften the x-ray beam.
reduce patient skin dose.