OB Study sheet

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Terms in this set (65)
thinking vs feelingwhether a person tends to rely on logic or emotions in dealing with problemsJudging vs. Perceivingapproaching tasks by planning and setting goals vs preferring to have flexibility and spontaneity when performing tasksBig Five Personality Traitsopenness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticismWhich personality trait best predicts work behavior?concientiousnesscore self-evaluationbottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a personmachiavellianismthe degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify meansnarcissismthe tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlementself-monitoringA personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.risk-takingwillingness to take chances. best to align personalities with job requirementsType A personalityAggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people.Type B personalityPersonality characterized by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.valuesbasic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existenceWhy are values important?They lay the foundation for our understanding of people's attitudes and motivation and influence our perceptionsTerminal valuesdesirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetimeinstrumental valuespreferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal valuesBoomer valuesborn after WWII- emphasis on achievement and material successGen Xshaped by globalization, 2 career parents, MTV, AIDS, and computersGen Y (Millennials)High expectations and seek meaning, goal is to be rich, diverse, electronically networked, entrepreneurialHolfstede's Cultural Dimensions1. power distance 2. uncertainty-avoidance 3. individualism 4. masculinity 5. time orientation 6. indulgence-restraintperceptiona process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environmentWhat factors influence perception?factors in the situation, factors in the perceiver, factors in the targetattribution theoryan attempt to determine whether an individual's behavior is internally or externally causeddistinctivenesswhether an individual displays different behaviors in different situationsconsensuswhen everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same wayconsistencydoes the person respond the same way over timeShortcuts in judging othersselective perception, halo effect, contrast effect, stereotyping2 biasesfundamental & self-servingfundamental biasobserving behavior gets our attention and we look for an explanation to blame an individual for how they behaveself-serving biasThe tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.motivationthe processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal3 key elements of motivationintensity, direction, persistenceJob Performance Equation= motivation x ability x situational constraintsreinforcement theorya behavioral approach to motivation by changing behaviors by changing the consequences4 motivational tools to shape/change behavior- positive reinforcement - negative reinforcement -punishment -extinctionScheduling Reinforcementcontinuous reinforcements (always), intermittent reinforcement (periodically)law of contingent reinforcementthe reward must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibitedHerzberg's Two-Factor TheoryA theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory. - hygiene vs motivatorsMcClelland's Theory of Needsa theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivationintrinsic rewarda natural reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sakeextrinsic rewardsbenefits and/or recognition received from someone elseDoes base salary motivate according to Herzberg?It is a hygiene factor so if it is adequate it will not dissatisfy but will not satisfyGoal-setting theorya theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performanceself-efficacy theoryAn individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.equity theorya theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequitiesexpectancy theorya theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individualself-determination theorya theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivationjob enrichmentthe vertical expansion of jobs, which increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the workvertical loadingGiving workers greater authority and discretion by allowing them to perform functions previously reserved for higher levels of management.horizontal loadingCombining tasks to eliminate highly specialized jobs and to make larger work modules.5 core job dimensionsskill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedbackskill varietydegree we engage with a variety of skills within a jobtask identitydegree to which a job leads you to a completion of somethingtask significancedegree to which our work has an impact on those around usautonomydegree to which an individual plays a role in how/when they get the job donefeedbackimmediate on how you did on your job