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chapter 10 and 11 matching
Terms in this set (50)
(1856 - 1939) first one to study and emphasize the unconscious mind by dividing brain into 2 levels. (Conscious and unconscious) personality is composed of 3 systems Id, Ego, and Super Ego.
(1875 - 1961) Analytical Psychology- human behavior is determined by our goals and how we strife to get them. Agreed with Freud on the importance of the unconscious mind. Divided into 2 areas personal unconscious- things we once knew but have sincemoved to ourunconscious and collective unconscious - memories shared by all humans (instincts)
(1870- 1937) Individual Psychology - people are social creatures and act accordingly (strive to be perfect) stressed the conscious mind. Creative self - what each person strives for in perfection and the way they do it causes their goals.
(1900 - 1981) personality is shaped by the interaction between our basic needs and opportunities to fullfill them. 1 Relatedness- need to have relations with other people 2 Transendness- need to be creative 3 Identity- need to be unique 4 Belongingness- need to feel close to other people 5 Frame of Refrence- need to understand the world around you.
(1885 - 1952) believed personality is shaped by social relationship between young children and their needs.
(1897 - 1949) Personality is a part of social relationships that you encounter.3 processes occurin social relationships. 1. Dynamism- small unit over and over that fills a basic need. 2. Personification- image you have of yourself and others. 3. Cognitive Process- various ways of thinking using knowledge logically to communicate with others.
(1902 - 1994) developed 8 stages of personality development in each stage a person is faced with a major crisis (problem) if the crisis is not solved you will have trouble in later life adjusting.
(1904 - 1990) defined personality in terms of behavior (learning/behavioristic theories). Looked for relationship between cause and effect. Determined that 2 factors affect behavior. 1. Reinforcement = when behavior is rewarded it increases the chance of it happening again. (2 types of reinforcement positive = strengthens a response when it is present, and negative = strengthens a response when it is removed) 2. Punishment = providing a negative stimulus. "it is better to reward desirable behavior than to punish undesirable behavior" "Punishment is faster"
(1925 - ?) created a social learning/cognitive theory that said behavior is learned through observation and imitation. (we often seek out role models to imitate) "monkey see, monkey do" involved Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, Internal Locus, and External Locus.
(1908 - 1970) (Humanistic Theories) explained behavior in terms of motivation, people act like they do because of their certain basic needs, created the Hierarchy of Needs. (bottom to top) Physiological Needs, Safety Needs, Belongingness Needs, Esteem Needs, Self-Actualization Needs.
(1902 - 1987) (Humanistic Theories) self concept = system of attitudes you have of yourself. (first becomes apparent at age two = "I or Me Stage") he studied self concept vs. reality = if the two don't match you will face adjustment problems but if the two do match then you will face fewer problems in life.
(1905 - 1967) (Cognitive Theories) "Personality consists of our thoughts about ourselves" created the Personal Construct Theory = emphasizes psychological principals, a person's interpretation or prediction of the world around them. many people have untrue predictions. (make it worse than it really is)
(1897 - 1967) (Trait Theories) Common Traits = that everyone show and Individual Traits = unique to each person. Three Types of Individual Traits = 1. Radical Traits = traits so strong they identify the person. 2. Central Traits = Tendencies that make us predictable. 3. Secondary Traits = Preferences and personal Tastes.
(1905 - 1998) (Trait Theories) Used Factor Analysis (A statistical technique) Developed 16 Source Traits.
(1916 - ?) (English Psychologist) Said there were Three Dimensions of Personality = 1. Emotional Stability vs. Emotional Instability 2. Introversion vs. Extroversion and 3. Psychotisiam = Insensitive vs. Warm.
often give higher marks than deserved. (most often mark should be average)
tendency to rate a person high or low on all traits because of your first impression of them.
rate a person based on their race, nationality, or social group.
Pigeon Hole Error
rate a person because they are of a certain physical type.
state of psychological tension or strain.
any environmental demands that causes a state of tension or that requires change or adaptation.
College Life Stress Inventory = measures the amount of stress you have (the higher the score the higher the stress level)
speed up, intensify effort, and work faster to meet standards.
occurs when your permitted from reaching a goal.
the closer you get to a goal or choice the more attractive it appears.
people seek to avoid unattractive goals and choices.
Psychoneuralimmunology = looks at interaction between stress and the immune, indocrine, and nervous systems.
a large group of people who share common traits, customs, and behaviors.
explains behavior in tiny specific units. (EX: nerve impulses)
concern with larger more general units of behavior. (EX: everything yo do to prepare for lunch in high school)
Psycho dynamic Theories
emphasizes the unconscious mind.
original system of personality (present at birth) energy source for other two systems, completely unconscious, Pleasure principle.
Primarily conscious, involves learned ways of behavior. Reality principle = seeks appropriate ways to satisfy your needs.
Refers to the moral aspects of your personality, represents values established by society. Tells you "Right vs. Wrong". Conscious.
Consists of experiences that were once conscious but have since become forgotten. (EX: tying a shoe or using silverware)
Shared by all humans inherited by our ancestors, common for all members of a species, most influential part. INSTINCT.
"Introvert" people tend to respond to their own ideas and thoughts
"Extrovert" people tend to respond to social situations and other people.
Combination of the two attitudes. (one system usually dominates)
(Alfred Adler) What each person strives for in perfection, each person strives for perfection differently which causes their goals.
(H.S. Sullivan) Small unit, Occurs over and over, Meant to fill a basic need.
(H.S. Sullivan) Image you have of yourself and others.
(H.S. Sullivan) Various ways of thinking, you use knowledge logically, allows you to communicate with others.
(B.F. Skinner) Stregthens a response when it is present.
(B.F. Skinner) Strengthens a response when it is removed.
Self - Efficacy
(Albert Bandura) people who succeed in meeting their own internal performance standards.
Locus of Control
(Albert Bandura)Prevalent expectancy by which people evaluate situations.
(Carl Rogers) System of attitudes you have of yourself, first becomes apparent at age two.
Faced with two or more incompatible demands, opportunities, or parts.
Transforming stress into more socially accepted forms of behavior.
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