How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

49 terms

Macromolecules of Life

STUDY
PLAY
C3H6O3
smallest naturally occurring carbohydrates
CH2O
the ratio between carbon and hydrogen atoms in all carbohydrates
aldose
Sugar (carbohydrate) containing an aldehyde group -CH=O
ketose
Sugar (carbohydrate) containing a ketone group R-C=O-R'
triose
3 carbon sugar; shortest possible sugar chain
tetrose
4 carbon sugar; very rare
pentose
5 carbon sugar; usually used in DNA and RNA
hexose
6 carbon sugar; common example is glucose
heptose
7 carbon sugar; very rare; largest possible sugar chain
cellulose
the most abundant organic molecule in the world
carbohydrates
the starches and sugars present in foods that serve as the main energy source in all forms of life; generally sweet tasting
monosaccharide
simple sugars with multiple hydroxyl groups; D and L designations
D and L
designation of monosaccharides based on configuration at the carbon atom that is second from bottom depending on which side the hydroxyl group is on
D sugars
the only sugars used in metabolism
oligosaccharides
Sugars containing several simple sugars attached to one another using glycosydic linkages; ex:sucrose, lactose, maltose
glucose/fructose
two common oligosaccharides in plants
glucose/galactose
two common oligosaccharides in animals
tri/tetrasaccharides
two classifications of very rare oligosaccharides
polysaccharides
complex carbohydrates that are most commonly hexanes (used in food) or pentanes (used in DNA/RNA)
hemicellulose
carbohydrate polymers composed of various sugars; structural feature of plant cell walls
xylan
a specific type of hemicellulose that contributes to the rigidity of a plant
inositol
sugar alcohols; only found in plants
pectins
sugar acids; only found in plants
position of -OH
differentiates alpha and beta glucoses
beta cellulose
oligosaccharides that are a main component in the production of cellulose
alpha cellulose
oligosaccharides that are a main component in the production of starches
organoleptic measurements
measures the degree of sweetness of a substance; simulates taste buds
glycosidic linkages
link monosaccharides; bond between H from one sugar and OH from another to form a water molecule
maltose
2 glucose molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage
sucrose
glucose and fructose joined by a glycosidic linkage
lactose
glucose and galactose (animal starch) joined by a glycosidic linkage
alpha linkage
glycosidic linkage that occurs below the plane of the ring; breaks down relatively easily
beta linkage
glycosidic linkage that occurs above the plane of the ring; relatively hard to break
alpha glycosidase
enzyme that breaks down alpha linkages; mechanism by which starch becomes glucose
beta glycosidase
enzyme that breaks down beta linkages; very rare; only means by which cellulose can be broken down; present in the digestive systems of termites and ruminants
20
number of amino acids
amino acids
used to make proteins; available in both essential and non essential forms
essential amino acids
AAs that the body can NOT synthesize; must be intaken through nutrition (8)
non essential amino acids
AAs that are made by the body (12)
neurotransmitters
example of non-protein AAs
enzymes
catalytic proteins
structural
keratin, fibroin, collagen, and elastin are examples of this type of protein
nutrient and storage
zien, gliadin, ovalbumin, casein are examples of this type of protein
motor
actin and myosin are examples of this type of protein
transport
hemoglobin and myoglobin are examples of this type of protein
regulatory
hormones and insulin are examples of this type of protein
defense
antibodies, fibrinogen, and snake venom are examples of this type of protein
special purpose
antifreeze, fluorescence, and sweet proteins are this type
information
glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and flavoproteins are examples of this type of protein