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Terms in this set (59)
The number of bagels purchased by students at the student union each day is considered which measurement scale?
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Ratio
A researcher creates a variable called "shampoo type" that categorizes shampoo into three types a)herbal b)chemically balanced c)non-additive. What type of measurement scale is "shampoo category"?
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Nominal
Belle is interested in short term memory of children who are enrolled in Head Start programs. Her target population is Had Start children. In this study, "enrollment in Head Start" is which one of the following?
Constant
Variable
Constant
Relative Frequency distributions are used for?
Nominal variables
Ordinal variables
Interval variables
Ratio variables
All of the above
For interval level variables, which of the following properties does not apply?
Choco Mocha is five units lower than Cocoa Mocha
Choco Mocha is tastier than Cocoa Mocha
Choco Mocha is twice as expensive as Cocoa Mocha
Choco Mocha is different from Cocoa Mocha
Choco Mocha is twice as expensive as Cocoa Mocha
A pool company conducted a survey and asked respondents to indicate the ideal temperature in which to swim. Respondents were asked to respond in whole numbers using the Fahrenheit scale. What is the measurement scale of this variable?
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Interval
Which one of the following would be considered both ratio and continuous variable?
Age in months
Favorite Ice Cream
Number of students who graduate with honors
Temperature (in Fahrenheit) at noon.
Age in months
Which one of the following would be considered a discrete variable?
Blood Pressure
Favorite Actress
Number of children in a family
Home ownership (yes or no)
Number of children in a family
Cumulative relative frequency distributions are not used for?
Ordinal variables
Interval variables
Nominal variables
Ratio variables
Nominal variables
Real limits are only appropriate for continuous variables, but not for discrete variables. True or False
True
One hundred guests during a university's Parent Day are asked who it is they are visiting while they're on campus. Thirty indicate that they are visiting their son, forty indicate they are visiting their daughter, twenty indicate that they are visiting a grandchild, and ten indicate that they are visiting two children. What is the relative frequency for guests who are visiting their daughter?
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.40
In examining data collected over the past ten years, researchers at Sea World find that of 1,000 first-time guests: 452 visited during the summer months; 231 visited during the fall; 104 visited during the winter; and 213 visited during the spring. What is the relative frequency for guests who visited during the spring?
.45
.23
.21
.10
.21
Among the following, what is the preferred method for graphing data pertaining to preference of coffee flavor of a sample?
Bar graph
Cumulative frequency polygon
Frequency polygon
Histogram
Bar Graph
A student services employee advises 50 undergraduate students. For each student, she records the "type of student" for which they classify: a) traditional or b) non-traditional. She computes the standard deviation for "type of student." Is this appropriate given the measurement scale of this variable?
Yes
No
No
The most frequent number of credit hours enrolled by graduate students is nine. Which measure of central tendency does this statement represent?
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Standard deviation
Mode
The mean is a function of which scores in the distribution?
All but the two most extreme values
All but the one more extreme score
Every score
Only the largest and smallest scores
Only the middle two values
Every score
Of data collected on 50 schools, you are provided the number of students enrolled at the school that has the largest enrollment and the school that has the smallest enrollment. Which of the following can you calculate based on the data you have?
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Standard deviation
Range
For a distribution where the 40th percentile is 80, what is the percentile rank of 80?
0
.40
.80
40
80
80
For a dataset with five values (65, 72, 80, 88, 95), the relative frequency for the value 65 is 5%, the relative frequency for the value 72 is 15%, the relative frequency for the value 80 is 20%, the relative frequency for the value 88 is 30%, and the relative frequency for the value 95 is 30%. What is the cumulative relative frequency for the value 80?
15%
20%
40%
70%
100%
40%
Recall the conceptual formula for calculating the variance. Squaring the deviations from the mean in the numerator means that a negative variance will never be a possibility.
True or False
True
Which of the following is indicative of a distribution that has a skew value of +18.90?
A distribution that when split down the middle is an exact mirror image of itself
A left tail that is substantially pulled to the left
A right tail that is substantially pulled to the right
A very flat distribution
A right tail that is substantially pulled to the right
Which of the following is indicative of a distribution that has a kurtosis value of +7.25?
Leptokurtic distribution
Mesokurtic distribution
Platykurtic distribution
Positive skewness
Leptokurtic distribution
Which one of the following is a correct statement based on a distribution with a mean of 750 and standard deviation of 25?
About 2.5% of the scores in the distribution are greater than 675.
About 50% of the scores in the distribution are less than 725.
About 84% of the scores in the distribution are less than 775.
About 95% of the scores in the distribution are less than 700.
About 84% of the scores in the distribution are less than 775.
A standardized score of 2.22 is interpreted as which one of the following?
Approximately 2.25% of the distribution is right of the mean.
The mean is 2.22
The score is approximately 2 and 1/4 standard deviation units to the right of the mean.
The standard deviation is 2.22.
The score is approximately 2 and 1/4 standard deviation units to the right of the mean.
A new instructor receives the following standardized scores based on their first teaching evaluation: a) concern for students, −1.25; b) organization of the course, .35; c) facilitation of learning, .12; d) classroom materials, −2.10. In which area did the instructor score farthest from the average?
Concern for students
Organization of the course
Facilitation of learning
Classroom materials
Classroom materials
A researcher collects salary information from the first 30 employees in the human resources roster. Which of the following sampling methods is implied by this scenario?
Convenient sampling
Simple random sampling with replacement
Systematic sampling
Convenient sampling
A researcher collects data from every other employee in the human resources database. Which of the following sampling methods is implied by this scenario?
Convenient sampling
Simple random sampling without replacement
Systematic sampling
Systematic Sampling
A basket contains 50 cubes: 20 purple, 15 pink, 10 white, and 5 yellow. The probability that a cube selected at random is purple is equal to which one of the following?
5/50
10/50
15/50
20/50
20/50
To draw inferences from a sample, to what is the sample statistic compared?
Random Sample
Underlying distribution of estimates
Outcome probability
Sample population selection
Underlying distribution of estimates
Weights (in pounds and ounces) of newborns ranges from 3 pounds 7 ounces to 8 pounds 14 ounces. Most of the weights of newborns bunch together between mid-seven to mid-eight pounds. What does this suggest in terms of the shape of the distribution?
Negative Kurtosis
Negative skewness
Positive kurtosis
Positive sknewness
Negative skewness
Matthew wants to know whether food preferences are related to the region of the country in which a person resides and more specifically if the same proportions of people select different types of food in the different regions. He randomly samples 800 adults nationwide and collects data on two variables: 1) food preference, a nominal variable with two levels (American, ethnic); and region, a nominal variable with four levels (north, south, east, west). Which statistical procedure is most appropriate to use to test the hypothesis?
Chi square goodness-of-fit test
Chi square test of association
Chi square test of association
Luke wants to know if the same proportion of scuba divers prefer east coast diving destinations as compared to west coast diving destinations when selecting where to vacation. He randomly samples 500 scuba divers and determines which coast they prefer (east vs. west coast; nominal measurement scale). Which statistical procedure is most appropriate to use to test the hypothesis?
Chi square goodness-of-fit
Chi square test of association
goodness-of-fit
Dedra hypothesizes that the proportion of people selecting outdoor as compared to indoor exercise will differ based on the climate where they reside. She randomly samples 100 adults who subscribe to a national health magazine and collects data on two variables: 1) exercise preference, a nominal measurement scale with two categories (outdoor exercise or indoor exercise); and climate, an ordinal variable with three categories (mild, moderate, severe). Which statistical procedure is most appropriate to use to test the hypothesis?
Chi square goodness-of-fit
Chi square test of association
test of association
How many degrees of freedom are there in a 2 × 3 contingency table when the chi-square test of association is used?
1
2
3
6
2
A contingency table contains 3 rows and 6 columns. How many cells are in this table?
3
6
10
18
18
Which of the following standardized residuals is contributing to a statistically significant chi-square statistic, given an alpha of .05?
-1.00
-.50
+1.70
+3.20
+3.2
Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the weakest relationship?
-.77
-.25
+.10
+.50
+1.0
Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship?
-.91
-.59
+.05
+.95
+.95
If the number of children and number of pets are strongly positively correlated, then those with more pets tend to have fewer children. True or False
False
If work ethic and salary are strongly negatively correlated, then those with lower work ethic tend to be paid more. True or False
True
Complete this sentence by selecting one of the following statements: "In simple linear regression, if the slope is found to be −0.002, . . ."
the value of Y is equal to −.002 when X is 0.
the value of Y is equal to −.002 when X is 1.
the value of Y will decrease by 0.002 units when X increases by 1 unit.
the value of Y will decrease by 0.002 units when X increases by 1 unit.
1. For variables X and Y, given a correlation coefficient of -.95, which one of the following is a correct statement?
As X decreases, Y decreases
As X increases, Y increases
As X increases, Y decreases
X causes Y
As X increases, Y decreases
Jasmine collects data on a random sample of 100 rollercoasters around the country. She collects data on the following: 1) height of highest peak on the coaster (measured in feet; ratio measurement scale) and 2) length of the coaster (measured in feet; ratio measurement scale). She is interested in examining if there is a relationship between the highest peak and length of the rollercoaster. Which statistical procedure is most appropriate to use to test the hypothesis?
Pearson correlation coefficient
Phi Coefficient
Spearman or Kendall tau's correlation coefficient
Pearson correlation coefficient
The variance of X is 25, the variance of Y is 64, and the covariance between X and Y is 81. What is rXY?
.23
.30
.40
.56
.23
In a study of the relation between hours watching TV per day (X) and scores on the final exam (Y), the equation of regression line is found to be Y' = −7X + 100. Suppose Jamie watches TV two hours per day, and he scored a 91 on the exam. What is the residual score for Jamie?
-7
-5
0
5
100
5
The variance of X is 16, the variance of Y is 25, and the covariance between X and Y is 4. What is rXY?
.10
.25
.50
.75
.10
Wesley is interested in seeing if there is a relationship between voter registration status (registered voter or not) and whether or not the individual believes the incumbent will win. He collects data from 2,000 voters and collects data on the following two variables: a) voter registration status (two categories: registered or not registered); and b) belief of whether or not the incumbent will win (two categories: incumbent will win or incumbent will not win). Which statistical procedure is most appropriate to use to test the hypothesis?
Pearson correlation coefficient
Phi coefficient
Spearman or Kendall tau's correlation coefficient
Phi coefficient
Aladdin wants to know if there is a relationship between the type of entrance exam completed and the graduate degree program that the student enters. He collects data from a random sample of 500 incoming UCF graduate students on the following: 1) type of graduate entrance exam completed (GRE, GMAT, MAT, other); and 2) graduate degree program the student is entering (master's, Ed.S., Ed.D., Ph.D.). Which statistical procedure is most appropriate to use to test the hypothesis?
Pearson correlation coefficient
Phi coefficient
Spearman or Kendall tau's correlation coefficient
**Spearman or Kendall tau's
Sarah collected the data on heights and weights from 100 graduate students. Based on the data, she built a simple linear regression model to predict weight (in lbs) from height (in inches). The regression line is found to be Y' = 4X − 136. Which of the following statements is the correct interpretation of the equation?
When weight increases by 1 lb, height is expected to increase by 4 inches.
When weight decreases by 4 lbs, height is expected to increase by 1 inch.
When height increases by 1 inch, weight is expected to increase by 4 lbs.
When height increases by 4 inches, weight is expected to decrease by 1 lb.
When height increases by 1 inch, weight is expected to increase by 4 lbs.
Dr. Guinea was studying the relation between the amount of caffeine intake and people's performance on a difficult task. He found out that as the amount of caffeine intake increases, the time to finish the task first decreases, and then increases. If he used the data to fit a linear regression model, which assumption would likely be violated?
Independence
Homogeneity
Linearity
Normality
Linearity
In simple linear regression, if rXY = .3, the proportion of variation in Y that is not predictable from X is which one of the following?
0.09
0.3
0.7
0.91
0.91
If the slope of the estimated regression line is positive, the correlation between X and Y
must be positive
must be negative
may be zero
depends on the mean and variance of X and Y
must be positive
Which assumption(s) involved in simple linear regression can be assessed by examining the residual plot (ei vs. Xi)?
Independence
Homogeneity
Linearity
All of the above
All of the above
The regression line for predicting college GPA from SAT scores is found to be Y' = 0.0016X + 0.6. Karen's SAT score is 1800, and Mary's SAT score is 1600. What is the predicted difference in their college GPA?
Karen's predicted GPA is 0.32 higher than Mary's predicted GPA
Karen's predicted GPA is 0.92 higher than Mary's predicted GPA
Karen's predicted GPA is 0.32 lower than Mary's predicted GPA.
Karen's predicted GPA is 0.32 higher than Mary's predicted GPA
Derek is studying the relation between the selling price of a house (in dollars) (Y) and the age of the house (in years) (X). It is shown that rXY = −0.2, X(bar) = 40, and Y(bar) = 460,000. If Derek's own house was constructed 50 years ago, then the predicted selling price of his house based on simple linear regression would be
more than 460,000 dollars.
less than 460,000 dollars.
exactly 460,000 dollars.
impossible to be determined based on the information given.
less than 460,000 dollars
Bob and Brian both used simple linear regression to predict the consumption of ice cream (ml/person) (Y) based on temperature (°F) (X). However, they used two different data sets to estimate the model: Bob's sample includes only children younger than 12 (rXY = 0.6), while Brian's sample includes only adult consumers (rXY = 0.4). Which of the following statements is always true?
Bob and Brian will get different estimates of intercept.
Bob and Brian will get different estimates of slope.
Bob and Brian will get different prediction equations.
Bob and Brian will get different R2 for their models.
Bob and Brian will get different R2 for their models.
The standardized regression slope (b*yx)
may never be negative.
may never be greater than +1.00.
is always equal to 0.
None of the above.
may never be greater than +1.0
In simple linear regression, the assumption of normality states that
the observed scores on Y are normally distributed.
the conditional distributions of Y are normal in shape
the observed scores on X are normally distributed.
the distributions of regression coefficients are normal in shape.
the conditional distributions of Y are normal in shape
The assumptions of the simple linear regression model do not include which one of the following?
The errors are normally distributed.
The errors have constant variance across different values of X.
The errors are independent of each other.
The errors have mean of 0 and variance of 1.
The errors have mean of 0 and variance of 1.
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