science that investigates matter and its interactions
basic particles of matter
anything that takes up space
made up of atoms and cannot be changed or broken down into simpler substances
chemical structure that contains more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons
chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more molecules
all of the chemical reactions in the body
decomposition of complex molecules; covalent bond is broken and kinetic energy is released
synthesis of new compounds
reactions that release energy (catabolism)
reactions that absorb energy (anabolism)
single most important thing for the body; accounts for 2/3 of the total body weight
the volume of the body is made up of 60 to 80 percent of this
1) essential reactant in chemical reactions; and 2) has high heat capacity (absorbs and retains heat)
main source of cellular fuel
another name for "sugar"
simple, pure sugar (e.g., glucose)
two simple sugars joined together (e.g., sucrose, lactose)
lots of sugars joined together (e.g., starches)
fats, oils, and waxes
long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms and used as energy sources
used as an energy source, for energy storage, insulation, and physical protection
triglycerides containing many hydrogen atoms
trigylcerides missing hydrogen atoms altogether
trigylcerides missing hydrogen atoms on either side of the molecule
most abundant organic component and a major structural component of the body
these provide support, structure, and framework for the body
these are necessary for building and repair of body
catalyze reactions that sustain life by lowering activation energy; starts chemical reactions
double stranded helix
determines inherited characteristics; encodes the information needed to build proteins and control shape and physical characteristics of the body
cooperates to manufacture proteins using the provided information; helps to make copies of DNA
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil
contains all nucleotides except for thymine - replaced with uracil
DNA is made up of nucleotide bases and _________.
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