35 terms

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology - Ch 2

STUDY
PLAY
chemistry
science that investigates matter and its interactions
atoms
basic particles of matter
matter
anything that takes up space
elements
made up of atoms and cannot be changed or broken down into simpler substances
molecule
chemical structure that contains more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons
compound
chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more molecules
metabolism
all of the chemical reactions in the body
catabolism
decomposition of complex molecules; covalent bond is broken and kinetic energy is released
anabolism
synthesis of new compounds
exergonic
reactions that release energy (catabolism)
endergonic
reactions that absorb energy (anabolism)
water
single most important thing for the body; accounts for 2/3 of the total body weight
water
the volume of the body is made up of 60 to 80 percent of this
water
1) essential reactant in chemical reactions; and 2) has high heat capacity (absorbs and retains heat)
carbohydrates
main source of cellular fuel
saccharide
another name for "sugar"
monosaccharide
simple, pure sugar (e.g., glucose)
disaccharide
two simple sugars joined together (e.g., sucrose, lactose)
polysaccharide
lots of sugars joined together (e.g., starches)
lipids
fats, oils, and waxes
fatty acids
long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms and used as energy sources
fats
used as an energy source, for energy storage, insulation, and physical protection
saturated fats
triglycerides containing many hydrogen atoms
unsaturated fats
trigylcerides missing hydrogen atoms altogether
trans fat
trigylcerides missing hydrogen atoms on either side of the molecule
protein
most abundant organic component and a major structural component of the body
proteins
these provide support, structure, and framework for the body
proteins
these are necessary for building and repair of body
enzymes
catalyze reactions that sustain life by lowering activation energy; starts chemical reactions
DNA
double stranded helix
DNA
determines inherited characteristics; encodes the information needed to build proteins and control shape and physical characteristics of the body
RNA
cooperates to manufacture proteins using the provided information; helps to make copies of DNA
nucleotides
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil
RNA
contains all nucleotides except for thymine - replaced with uracil
deoxyribose sugar
DNA is made up of nucleotide bases and _________.