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an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached
family of languages spoken (long-term) across parts of western Asia and Northern Africa; included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician; most modern widespread = Arabic
Amorite ruler of Babylon from r. 1792-1750; he conquered many city-states in northern and southern Mesopotamia; best known for a code of laws inscribed on a black stone pillar (whcih stated legal case principles)
the number of ways in which social groups provide themselves with the material objects of their civilization
a ruined city in lower Egypt, on the Nile River, south of Cairo; the ancient capital of Egypt
an ancient city in upper Egypt, on the Nile River, located on the modern towns of Karnak and Luxor
the earliest writing system whose symbols stood for words, syllables, or individual sounds
the material on which to write; made from the papyrus plant; used by ancient Egyptians and Greeks and Romans
any person or group of people without a permanent home, but moving about constantly, as in search of a pasture
an agricultural way of life that involves raising livestock and usually includes some farming
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