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39 terms

Chapter 2: The First River-Valley Civilizations (3500 - 1500 B.C.E.)

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civilization
an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached
floodplains
a nearly flat plain, alongside a stream or river, that floods naturally
Babylon
the most important city in Mesopotamia during the first and second millennia B.C.E.
Sumerians
the earliest people in Mesopotamia (during the "historical period")
Semitic
family of languages spoken (long-term) across parts of western Asia and Northern Africa; included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician; most modern widespread = Arabic
city-state
independent ancient urban centers and the agricultural territories they controlled
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon from r. 1792-1750; he conquered many city-states in northern and southern Mesopotamia; best known for a code of laws inscribed on a black stone pillar (whcih stated legal case principles)
scribe
one who copied manuscripts before the invention of printing
ziggurat
a multistory, mudbrick, pyramid-shaped tower approached by ramps and stairs
writing
printing on paper
technology
the number of ways in which social groups provide themselves with the material objects of their civilization
irrigation
applying water to land for growth of crops
Nubia
the southern part of Egypt and northern Sudan
amulet
a small charm meant to protect the bearer from evil
cuneiform
early pictures styilized into a combo of strokes and wedges
pharaoh
the central figure of the Egyptian state
ma'at
the divinely authorized order of the universe
pyramid
smooth, steeply sloping sided tombs; most memorable symbol of ancient Egypt
Memphis
a ruined city in lower Egypt, on the Nile River, south of Cairo; the ancient capital of Egypt
Thebes
an ancient city in upper Egypt, on the Nile River, located on the modern towns of Karnak and Luxor
hieroglyphics
the earliest writing system whose symbols stood for words, syllables, or individual sounds
papyrus
the material on which to write; made from the papyrus plant; used by ancient Egyptians and Greeks and Romans
mummy
a dead, dried, and preserved human being preserved by the ancient Egyptians
Harappa
a Bronze Age culture that flourished in the Indus Valley
Mohenjo-daro
near the Indus valley; six successive ancient cities were built here
systems failure
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domestication
to tame or culture for human use
agrarianism
philosophy that agriculture and owning land is the backbone of the economy
nomad
any person or group of people without a permanent home, but moving about constantly, as in search of a pasture
pastorialism
an agricultural way of life that involves raising livestock and usually includes some farming
cycle of civilization
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institution
a person or thing long established in a place
cultural diffusion
the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
revolution
a complete cycle of events
sedentary
marked by much sitting
polytheism
belief in more than one good
patriarchal societies
the idea that the man was in charge of the family
society
a group of people forming a single community
culture
learned patterns of action and expression.