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309 Module 2 - MorphoSyntactic Development
Terms in this set (36)
the rules that govern how morphemes are used
the smallest meaningful unit language
-smaller than a word
morpheme that can't stand on its own - it must be attached to something
morpheme that can stand on its own - it does not need to be attached to another morpheme
add grammatical information, but does not change the word's category (nouns stay nouns, verbs stay verbs, etc.)
forms a new word, potentially changing the word's category (nouns become adjectives, verbs become nouns, etc.)
is a system that involves morphology AND syntax; grammar is often called "morpho-syntax"
-morphology and syntax provide a systematic structure to convey events (who did what action to whom, with what instrument/tool/object and where?)
less inflectional morphology, and more rigid syntax (e.g., Mandarin, English, Yoruba)
lots of inflectional morphology, and so syntax is less rigid (e.g., Spanish, Hungarian, Turkish)
factors that help make morphology easier to learn for children regardless of the language:
-regularity in form (present progressive -ing vs. plural -s)
-fixed position relative to the stem (morpheme is always prefix, suffix, infix)
-morpheme is easy to perceive as separate from the stem (walkING vs. walkED)
-rhythm of language makes morpheme perceptually salient
What does MLU stand for?
mean length of utterance
-systematic way to measure length and complexity of child's productions
-count morphemes, NOT words
How to calculate average MLU
-record and transcribe 100 intelligible utterances
-calculate the average number of morphemes per utterance
Formula for MLU
total # of morphemes
total # of utterances
MLU and age
-length = syntactic "age" of child
-roughly corresponds to a child's age
How is MLU measured?
MLU often measured as part of diagnostic assessment battery for language disorders in children and adults
catS, dogS, glasseS
cat'S, dog'S, glass'S
Regular Past Tense
touchED, huggED, wantED
3rd Person Singular
laughS, hugS, touchES
she'S happy, the cat'S here
Contracted Auxiliary Verbs
she'S walking, the cat'S meowing
the component of grammar that governs the ordering of words in a sentence
Productivity of Human Language
ability to combine simple meanings to create:
1. utterances with complex meanings
2. novel expressions
3. infinite number of combinations with limited vocabulary
a sentence consists of a noun phrase followed by a verb phrase
Syntax in other languages
every language has slightly different rules for syntax
-SVO languages (subject-verb-object): English, Spanish, French (e.g. Dustin gets teeth)
-SOV languages (subject-object-verb): Korean, Hungarian, Turkish (e.g. Dustin teeth gets)
successive single-word utterances that seem to be related to each other
ex: "ow. eye."
transitional forms that combine multiple words, but are understood by the child to be a single word
ex: "Iwant" (I want), "Idunno" (I don't know), "gimme" (give me)
being able to use known vocabulary in different (unique) combinations
Beyond Two Words
children's development is measured by the maximum number of words they produce in a given utterance
-child at 1-word stage doesn't produce 2-words
-child at 2-word stage doesn't produce 3-words
-many 3-word utterances are combinations of the phrases expressed in the two-word stage
-typical grammatical categories included in children's multiword speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives
-typical categories missing in children's multiword speech: determiners (the, a), prepositions (to, by, from), auxiliary verbs (am, are, was), bound morphemes (-s plural markers)
-basic division of meaning for the child is to express more content than to be more grammatical
Sentence Type - Imperative (request, invitation, command)
-"get my coat."
-"come with me."
Sentence Type - Declarative (makes a statement)
-"I like donuts."
-"I am Emmie."
Sentence Type - Question
"Where is my coat?"
Sentence Type - Negation
"I don't want dinner."
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309 Module 2 - Lexical Development
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