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35 terms

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology - Ch 3

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cell
smallest living unit of the body; building blocks of the human body
plasma membrane
surrounds the cell and separates cytoplasm from outside fluid
cytoplasm
contains contents of cell and stands between nucleus and cell membrane; contains liquid and organelles
nucleus
control center of the cell
mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell; produces energy
ribosome
makes proteins
endoplasmic reticulum
manufactures proteins, stores synthesized molecules, transports materials, and detoxifies/neutralizes chemicals
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
synthesizes phospholipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones, glycerides, and glycogen
rough endoplasmic reticulum
affiliated ribosomes produce proteins; will package and send proteins and materials to the Golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus
modifies and packages secretions and enzymes for transport
lysosomes
vesicles filled with enzymes that perform clean up functions within the cells; engulf and digest debris and bacteria
microfilaments
form dense layer inside the plasma membrane; attaches plasma membrane to cytoplasm by forming connections with proteins - gives shape and structure to cell
centriole
plays a role in cell division by producing spindle fibers that move DNA strands
plasma membrane
made mostly of phospholipids and cholesterol; helps substances move into or out of cell
diffusion
movement of substances from an area of high concentration toward area of low concentration through channels in the plasma membrane
phospholipids
in addition to cholesterol, major components of the plasma membrane
osmosis
net movement of water toward an area of high substance concentration
tonicity
pull on water
isotonic solution
substance concentration is the same inside and outside of cell
isotonic
solution where there is no movement of water across cell membrane
hypotonic
cells run the risk of bursting in this type of solution
hypotonic
type of solution where substances migrate from a lower concentration outside the cell to a higher concentration inside the cell
hypertonic
type of solution where substance migrate from a lower concentration inside the cell to a higher concentration outside the cell
hypertonic
cells shrink in this type of solution
facilitated diffusion
carrier protein moves a substance from an area of high concentration toward an area of low concentration
active transport
carrier protein moves substances across plasma membrane with help of ATP (energy); movement is not dependent on concentration gradient and substances can move from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration
vesicles
small membranous sacs
endocytosis
packaging of extracellular materials into a vesicle for import into a cell
exocytosis
packaging of intracellular materials into a vesicle for discharge into extracellular environment
cell division
cellular reproductions for the purpose of replacing old and damaged cells
mitosis
somatic cell division where one parent cell gives rise to two identical daughter cells
meiosis
reproductive cell division where parent cell produces two cells, each cell having half of the genetic information as the parent cell
false
True or false. Cell division commonly occurs in mature cells of nervous tissue, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle.
messenger RNA
aids in the copying of DNA
transfer RNA
deliver amino acids that will be used by ribosome to assemble a protein