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smallest living unit of the body; building blocks of the human body

plasma membrane

surrounds the cell and separates cytoplasm from outside fluid


contains contents of cell and stands between nucleus and cell membrane; contains liquid and organelles


control center of the cell


powerhouse of the cell; produces energy


makes proteins

endoplasmic reticulum

manufactures proteins, stores synthesized molecules, transports materials, and detoxifies/neutralizes chemicals

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

synthesizes phospholipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones, glycerides, and glycogen

rough endoplasmic reticulum

affiliated ribosomes produce proteins; will package and send proteins and materials to the Golgi apparatus

Golgi apparatus

modifies and packages secretions and enzymes for transport


vesicles filled with enzymes that perform clean up functions within the cells; engulf and digest debris and bacteria


form dense layer inside the plasma membrane; attaches plasma membrane to cytoplasm by forming connections with proteins - gives shape and structure to cell


plays a role in cell division by producing spindle fibers that move DNA strands

plasma membrane

made mostly of phospholipids and cholesterol; helps substances move into or out of cell


movement of substances from an area of high concentration toward area of low concentration through channels in the plasma membrane


in addition to cholesterol, major components of the plasma membrane


net movement of water toward an area of high substance concentration


pull on water

isotonic solution

substance concentration is the same inside and outside of cell


solution where there is no movement of water across cell membrane


cells run the risk of bursting in this type of solution


type of solution where substances migrate from a lower concentration outside the cell to a higher concentration inside the cell


type of solution where substance migrate from a lower concentration inside the cell to a higher concentration outside the cell


cells shrink in this type of solution

facilitated diffusion

carrier protein moves a substance from an area of high concentration toward an area of low concentration

active transport

carrier protein moves substances across plasma membrane with help of ATP (energy); movement is not dependent on concentration gradient and substances can move from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration


small membranous sacs


packaging of extracellular materials into a vesicle for import into a cell


packaging of intracellular materials into a vesicle for discharge into extracellular environment

cell division

cellular reproductions for the purpose of replacing old and damaged cells


somatic cell division where one parent cell gives rise to two identical daughter cells


reproductive cell division where parent cell produces two cells, each cell having half of the genetic information as the parent cell


True or false. Cell division commonly occurs in mature cells of nervous tissue, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle.

messenger RNA

aids in the copying of DNA

transfer RNA

deliver amino acids that will be used by ribosome to assemble a protein

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