Apologia Chemistry Module 13
Terms in this set (29)
The energy stored in an object
Change in Enthalpy (∆H)
The energy change that accompanies a chemical reaction
(often referred to as just enthalpy)
kJ/mole or kcal/mole
∆H is _______ for endothermic reactions
∆H is _______ for exothermic reactions
When a reaction is exothermic, energy is thought of as a _______.
When a reaction is endothermic, energy is thought of as a _______.
A measure of the strength of a chemical bond
energy required to BREAK bonds - energy RELEASED when bonds formed
Any quantity that depends solely on the final destination, not on the way you get to that destination
Enthalpy is a state function and is therefore independent of path
(the amount of energy in a substance is independent of how it is made)
Enthalpy of Formation (∆H(f))
The ∆H of a formation reaction
25°C and 1.00 atm
Standard enthalpy of formation (∆H(f)°)
∆H(f) measured at 25°C and 1.00 atm
∑∆H(f)°(products) - ∑∆H(f)°(reactants)
The ∆H(f)° of an element in its elemental form is _______
The energy necessary to start a chemical reaction
A measure of the disorder that exists in any system
Joules/mole*K OR kcals/mole*K OR kJ/mole*K
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of the universe must always either in crease or remain the same. It can never decrease.
The _______ state has the least amount of entropy associated with it.
The entropy of a system _______ with increasing temperature.
The entropy of a system ______ as the matter it contains increases.
∑∆S°(products) - ∑∆S°(reactants)
Gibbs Free Energy (∆G)
∆H - T∆S
where T = temperature of surroundings (in Kelvin)
When ∆G < 0, the reaction
When ∆G > 0, the reaction
An exothermic reaction that increases energy ...
is always spontaneous
An endothermic reaction that decreases entropy ...
will never occur
The ∆G°(f) of any element in its elemental form is _______
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