62 terms

142 - week 1 vocab

Clinical applications lab - oxygenation
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ventilation
movement of air into and out of lungs (breathing)
respiration
gas exchange between atmospheric air in aveoli and blood in capillaries
perfusion
process by which oxygenated capillary blood passes through body tissues
adventitious
occurring in an unusual place or manner; abnormal
alveoli
clusters of small air sacs at the end of terminal bronchioles; site of gas exchange
apnea
suspension of breathing
arterial blood gas (ABG)
An arterial blood gas (ABG) test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery
atelectasis
incomplete lung expansion or collapse of the lung or alveoli
boyle's law
volume of a gas at constant temp varies inversely with the pressure
bradypnea
slow breathing
bronchial
loud high-pitched sounds heard primarily over the trachea and larynx
bronchodilator
inhaled meds that open narrowed airways
bronchovesicular
medium-pitched blowing sounds heard over the major bronchi
chest percussion
involves the creation of deliberate percussion, as a type of calculated hitting over the chest that can effectively break up thick secretions commonly associated with respiratory infections
chest vibration
involves the creation of deliberate vibrations, as a type of calculated hitting over the chest that can effectively break up thick secretions commonly associated with respiratory infections
cilia
microscopic hair-like projections that propel trapped material and accompanying mucus toward the upper airway so they can be removed by coughing.
crackles
soft high-pitched discontinuous (intermittent) popping sounds
compliance
the ability of the lungs to stretch in a change in volume relative to an applied change in pressure
diffusion
movement of gas or particles from areas of higher pressure or concentration to areas of lower pressure or concentration
dyspnea
difficulty breathing; most common symptom of hypoxia
edema
an abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin, or in one or more cavities of the body
expiration (exhalation)
phase of ventilation; passive; movement of air out of lungs
fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2)
percentage of oxygen in something (21% in atmosphere); want to to give lowest FiO2 possible and maintain oxygenation of blood
hemothorax
blood in the pleural space; requires chest tube to drain
hyperventilation
increased rate and depth of ventilation above the body's normal metabolic requirements
hypoventilation
decreased rate or depth of air movement into the lungs
hypoxemia
low levels of oxygen in the blood; causes hypoxia
hypoxia
condition in which an inadequate amount of oxygen is available to cells
incentive spirometer
instrument that measures lung volumes and airflow
inspiration (inhalation)
phase of ventilation; active; involves movement of muscles and the thorax to bring air into the lungs
nasal cannula
most common oxygen delivery device; disposable, plastic connects to O2 source with flowmeter and, often, an inhaler
nebulizer
equipment that disperses fine particles of liquid meds into the deeper passages of the respiratory tract, where absorption occurs
nonedematous
not swollen; without edema
nonrebreather mask
covers both the nose and mouth; has reservoir bag is inflated to greater than two-thirds full of oxygen, at a rate of 8-15 liters per minute; tries to keep out inhalation of exhaled and outside air from surrounding environment
osmosis
diffusion of a solvent (frequently water) through a semi-permeable membrane, from a solution of low solute concentration (high water potential) to a solution with high solute concentration
oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve
relates oxygen saturation (SO2) and partial pressure of oxygen in the blood (PO2), and is determined by what is called "hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen," that is, how readily hemoglobin acquires and releases oxygen molecules from its surrounding tissue.
partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2)
measures how much carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood and how well carbon dioxide is able to move out of the body
partial pressure of oxygen (PO2)
measures the pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood and how well oxygen is able to move from the airspace of the lungs into the blood
partial rebreather mask
covers both the nose and mouth; has reservoir bag is inflated to greater than two-thirds full of oxygen, at a rate of 8-15 liters per minute; limits inhalation of exhaled and outside air from surrounding environment
patent
open; clear
perfusion
process by which oxygenated capillary blood passes through body tissues
pleural effusion
fluid in the pleural space; requires chest tube to drain
pneumothorax
air in the pleural space; requires chest tube to drain
postural drainage
Drainage used in bronchiectasis and lung abscess. The patient's body is positioned so that the trachea is inclined downward and below the affected chest area [1]. Postural drainage is essential in treating bronchiectasis and patients must receive physiotherapy to learn to tip themselves into a position in which the lobe to be drained is uppermost at least three times daily for 10-20 minutes. most patients find that lying over the side of the bed with head and thorax down is the most effective position
pulmonary edema
swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs
pulmonary toilet
set of methods used to clear mucus and secretions from the airways; includes suctioning of the airways, chest physiotherapy, and nasotracheal suction
pulse oximetery
non-invasive technique that measures arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 or SpO2) of arterial blood
respiration
involves gas exchange between the atmospheric air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries
simple facemask
basic disposable mask, made of clear plastic, to provide oxygen therapy
sputum
respiratory secretion expelled by coughing or clearing the throat
surfactant
detergent-like phospholipid that reduces the surface tension between the moist membranes of alveoli, preventing collapse
tachypnea
rapid breathing
ventilation
movement of air into and out of the lungs (breathing)
vesicular
low-pitched soft sounds heard over peripheral lung fields
venturi mask
high-flow oxygen therapy devices. This is because venturi masks are able to provide total inspiratory flow at a specified FIO2 to patients
hypercarbia
increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2)
pleural friction rub
continuous, dry grating sound caused by inflammation of pleural surfaces and loss of lubricating pleural fluid
thoracentesis
procedure of puncturing the chest wall and aspirating pleural fluid
metered dose inhaler (MDI)
delivers a controlled dose of meds with each compression of the canister
dry powdered inhaler (DPI)
breath-activated
endotracheal tube
polyvinylchloride airway inserted through the nose or mouth into the trachea, using a laryngoscope as a guide; used to suction secretions, administer O2 via ventilator, or bypass airway obstruction (edema)
oxygen saturation
measures how much of the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is carrying oxygen