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French stronghold of Nova Scotia; when lost to British, the Acadians moved south, eventually to Louisiana where they became the "Cajuns"

Samuel Adams

propagandist and a leader of the Sons of Liberty; gave the name "Boston Massacre" to that event; helped organize committees of correspondence to keep colonies in touch with one another in opposition to Britain

Albany Congress

meeting called by British government to keep the Iroquois loyal and create colonial unity to fight off the French

Ethan Allen/Fort Ticonderoga

Allen led American force against British garrison at Ticonderoga, NY; captured fort and munitions there

Battle of Long Island

Continental Army routed by the British; US troops escaped to Manhattan Island; summer and fall of 1776

Gen. Benedict Arnold

American general; retreated from Quebec to Lake Champlain, put together a naval force, slowed Burgoyne; plotted in 1780 with British to take West Point for £6,300 and an officer's commission; plot was detected and Arnold fled to British lines

Crispus Attucks

runaway mulatto killed in Boston Massacre

Gen. Charles Cornwallis

British leader in the South; surrendered to Washington at Yorktown

Coureurs de Bois

runners of the woods; French fur trappers

Daniel Boone

pioneer who went to Kentucky

Boston Massacre

March 5, 1770; British soldiers and colonists in Boston argued and heckled one another; shot fired and several more followed; killed or wounded 11 citizens; British soldiers tried and all but two acquitted

Boston Tea Party

December 16,1773; Sons of Liberty in Boston boarded British East India Company vessels and dumped cargo overboard into the harbor to protest the tax on tea

Gen. Edward Braddock

: British general sent to Virginia with a group of British regulars; used old school tactics that led to his defeat as the French and Indians used guerilla tactics on frontiers

Bunker Hill/Breed's Hill

Americans seized in Boston June 1775; menaced the British from here; abandonded when the gunpowder supply ran out

Gen. John Burgoyne

"Gentleman Johnny"; British general who tried to make a three-pronged attack at Albany; stopped by the Continental Army at Saratoga, NY; surrendered to American Gen. Horatio Gates

Samuel de Champlain

soldier and explorer known as the "Father of New France" who allied with Huron Indians, leading to rivalry with Iroquois Indians

Common Sense

pamphlet by Thomas Paine in 1776 which discussed the need to commit to independence and Republicanism

Intolerable Acts

passed as punishment for the Boston Tea Party; Boston Port Act closed the harbor until damages were paid for; officials on trial for crimes in the colonies could be tried outside the colonies; took away charter of Massachusetts; new quartering act

Invasion of Canada

Montgomery and Arnold led invasion to try and secure French support in American Revolution; assault on Quebec was turned back; Montgomery killed, Arnold shot

Iroquois Tribes

Indians of upper New York area who were enemies of the French and hampered their efforts to penetrate into Ohio Valley

Thomas Jefferson

was on the committee to write the Declaration of Independence, did most of the writing; southern connection was a main reason he was chosen


Catholic missionaries trying to convert the Indians of New France to Catholicism

Admiral John Paul Jones

young Scotsman; father of the American navy; destroyed British merchant shipping

King George III

King of England whose goal was to assert the power of the British monarchy; poor ministers who didn't help his case with the colonists

King William's War (1689-1702

war pitting British colonials against French with their Indian allies and Spain

Lee's Resolution

July 2,1776): 2nd Continental Congress debated independence and adopted this

Lexington and Concord

British tried to take munitions at Concord, were met by minutemen at Lexington, fired 'shot heard 'round the world'; met at battle at Old North Bridge at Concord


French fort captured by British in 1758; first significant British victory of war

Marquis de Lafayette

French nobleman who came to America to fight for independence movement


wealth was power and wealth was measured in terms of the amount of gold and silver you possess; colonies fit the system by providing resources and markets for the mother country


fell to the British in 1760; leading to the end of French power in North America

Navigation Law of 1650

all commerce flowing to and from the colonies could be transported only in British vessels; later navigation laws included enumerated goods, European goods had to go through Britain

Non-importation Agreements

agreements to boycott certain British goods; created greater colonial unity

Lord North

persuaded Parliament to repeal Townshend duties, except for the tax on tea

Nullification of Laws

declaring laws null and void, not having effect

"Olive Branch Petition" (July 1775)

professed American loyalty to Great Britain, begged King George III to prevent further hostilities; George III did not


American colonists loyal to the revolution


loyalists to Britain; named for the dominant political faction in Great Britain

"Champagne Charley" Townshend

became Prime Minister in Britain; got Parliament to pass Townshend Acts in 1767

Townshend Acts (1767)

import duties on glass, white lead, tea, paper, paint; indirect taxes payable at American ports (not by individual citizens)

Treaty of Paris(1783)

British formally recognized the United States of America; granted generous boundaries (Mississippi River on west, Great Lakes to north, Florida on south); retain share of fisheries in Newfoundland; Loyalists not further persecuted; Congress recommended state legislatures return Loyalists' property; states not interfere with British collection of American debts

Treaty of Utrecht

ended Queen Anne's War in 1713, giving to England Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Hudson Bay

Valley Forge

Washington's winter quarters in 1777-1778; helped solidify the Continental Army and Washington's leadership

Virtual Representation

argument of Lord Grenville stating that all members of Parliament represented all members of the British Empire

War of Jenkins's Ear (1739)

conflict that erupted when a British captain had his ear cut off; war confined to Caribbean and Georgia

George Washington

land speculator in Virginia sent to secure land claims in Ohio for the British; named Commander-ln-Chief of the Continental Army; unanimously elected as first President of the United States

Gen. James Wolfe

sent by Pitt to capture Quebec and doing so


Cornwallis was trapped here by Washington and the French naval forces from the West Indies; surrendered to Washington October 19,1781

Continental Congress

met September 5-October 26, 1774 to address the Intolerable Acts; 12 of 13 colonies met to consider ways to redress grievances; drew up Declaration of Rights; created the Association; agreed to meet again in May 1775 if grievances to addressed by King

Admiral de Grasse

operated French naval forces in the West Indies; offered to meet Washington at Yorktown and fight Cornwallis

Robert de la Salle

explorer who traveled down Mississippi River to check Spanish penetration in region, establishing Louisiana

Comte de Rochambeau

commander of the French regular army;arrived at Rhode Island in the summer of 1780

Declaration of Independence (July 4,1776)

formally approved on this day; explained why the U.S. declared its independence and listed the wrongs of King George III

Declaratory Act (1766

passed when Parliament repealed the Stamp Act; stated that Parliament could make any laws and taxes over the colonies in all cases whatsoever

Enumerated Goods

goods that could only be sent by American merchants to Britain; notably tobacco

Fort Duquesne

French fort at joining of Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers in Ohio

Fort Necessity

hastily constructed fort where Washington and his men were forced to surrender after a 10-hour siege by the French

Franco-American Alliance

offical treaty of alliance between France and America; perpetual treaty of alliance

Ben Franklin/John Jay/John Adams

American negotiators at Paris Peace talks

French and Indian War (Seven Years' War - 1754-1763):

last of a series of wars fought between France and Great Britain for control of American territory in the Ohio territory; led to Britain's dominance in North America

Gen. Nathanael Greene

"the Fighting Quaker"; cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops by continually standing then retreating,making it appear he had a larger army than he did and that he was ready and able to engage often

George Grenville

Prime Minister of Great Britain who ordered strict enforcement of Navigation Laws beginning in 1763; got Parliament to pass Sugar Act of 1764

Patrick Henry

told the Virginia Assembly, "give me liberty, or give me death"


German mercenaries hired by British to fight in American Revolution Gen.

William Howe

British general who left the Hessians standing guard at Trenton


French Protestants who were persecuted until the Edict of Nantes gave them some limited toleration

Peace of Paris (1763)

treaty that gave Britain all French lands east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans as well as Florida (from Spain); gave Spain the trans-Mississippi River French territories including New Orleans, as well as Cuba; left Great Britain as the dominant power in North America

William Pitt

became first minister (prime minister) in 1757 and reorganized the British strategy against France

Pontiac's Rebellion

result of the Treaty of Paris and its ignoring of the Indian tribes; pan-Indian alliance established to drive British out of Ohio; British used biological warfare to defeat the Indians

Proclamation of 1763

forbid the settlement of British citizens west of the Appalachian Mountains in an attempt to calm the conflicts with the Indian tribes there

Quartering Act of 1765

required certain colonies to provide food and shelter for British troops


city on the St. Lawrence River that was site of beginning of French empire in North America in 1608; captured by British General Wolfe in 1759 during French and Indian War

Quebec Act

guaranteed French Catholics the right to practice their religion, could retain customs and institutions, boundary of Quebec extended southward to Ohio River

Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)

war pitting British colonials against the French with their Indian allies and Spain; ended with the Treaty of Utrecht

Radical Whigs

feared the threat to liberty posed by the arbitrary power of the monarch and his ministers relative to elected representatives in Parliament; attacked patronage and bribes used to king's ministers


system whereby citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good

Saratoga (October 1777)

Burgoyne surrendered to Gates here; revived the faltering colonial cause

2nd Continental Congress

representatives from all 13 colonies; drafted new appeals to British people and King George III; created army, navy, Declaration of Independence

Sons of Liberty

protest groups who enforced the non-importation agreements and tarred and feathered British officials in the colonies

Stamp Act of 1765

tax on paper goods and legal documents; intended to raise funds to pay for military force in colonies; repealed in 1766

Stamp Act Congress (1765)

colonial meeting in New York where representatives of 9 of the 13 colonies protested the Stamp Act; drew up Declaration of Colonial Rights and Grievances, asked king to repeal act

Sugar Act of 1764

first law ever passed by Parliament with the express purpose of raising revenue in the colonies for the crown; increased duty on foreign sugar imported from West Indies

Taxation Without Representation

colonists felt this was unjust treatment for Parliament to tax them with the colonies having any elected representatives in Parliament

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