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Nutrition and the Basics of Digestion
Terms in this set (63)
-glucose (sugar, carbs)
Replace molecules lost (degradation, sweat)
-electrolytes (Ca++, Na+, K+, Cl-)
disaccharide and monosaccharide
refer basically to cellulose or any carbohydrate the body cannot degrade on its own. Important because it creates a bulking effect in the digestive tract -> better bowel movements, attract water by osmosis, etc...
Unsaturated = the good
Saturated = the bad
Cholesterol = the ugly
Salts and minerals
Sodium, iron, calcium
A and C
Goal of Digestion
Break down the biggest of molecules including protein, lipids and carbohydrates into their basic components so they can be absorbed through the small intestine
The Big 3
Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair
simple molecules are called this (eg: sucrose = table sugar, lactose)
sometimes called fast sugar because they can be digested and absorbed quickly
there are 3: starch, glycogen and cellulose
Starch and glycogen are called slow sugars because their digestion is slower.
Cellulose is Processed differently.
the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. Animals do not have the necessary enzyme to break down cellulose into glucose like starch and glycogen. The gut microbiome can though....using fermentation.
Product of cellulose fermentation are
Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA)
saturated triglycerides fat aka "neutral fat" aka "the bad"
unsaturated triglycerides aka the "good"
Common phospholipid present in abundance in most cell membranes; uses choline attached to a phosphate as its head group.
A type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods. We do not need to eat this because our liver is good at making this. (Nicknamed the ugly bc it is usually in excess and is deposited into our arteries walls and form atherosclerosis plaques)
Monosaccharides are found in the
Disaccharides (sucrose and lactose) are found in the
mouth, small intestines
Trisaccharides are found in the
Oligosaccharides are found in the
esophagus, stomach, and small intestines
Polysaccharides or carbohydrates are found in the
Essential amino acids
histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine
Rats also require this AA
Cats also require this AA
Taurine (only in meat)
-a lack of Taurine can cause heart problems
Poultry also requires this AA
Arginine amino acid
considered essential in infants but non-essential in adults
Why are cats obligate carnivores and not dogs?
dogs can make it on their own but not very well when they are young. Puppies that are fed a vegan diet may develop heart failure. It has been linked to a lack of Taurine.
Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy
congenital cardiovascular disease characterized by dilated and thin ventricular and atrial walls of myocardium; common in dogs - leads to reduced heart pumping function and increased heart size
balance amount of grains and legumes
What is necessary for the synthesis of collagen?
a disease caused by lack of vitamin C (this disease was common in sailors-inflammation of the gums)
what is in food?
3 types of molecules will need to be degraded by digestion
2) Triglycerides (aka "fats" of lipids)
3) Carbohydrates (aka glucids)
-glycogen (animal carbs)
-starch (plant: grains)
-cellulose (plants: forage)
breakdown carbs, proteins and lipids into their smallest elements so they can be absorbed
3 ways to break down food particles
Mechanically: by chewing or pound it with grit (birds)
Chemically with a strong acid (HCl)
Enzymatically: more specifically by hydrolysis catalyzed by enzymes
mouth and gizzard
Stomach, abomasum, proventriculus
Pancreas (digestive juices), small intestines (cocktail of enzymes), stomach (1 enzyme) saliva (1 or 2 enzymes)
rumen or cecum or colon
Physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces (teeth or some stones)
chemically break down food with acid (HCl aka hydrochloric acid) which is a function of the stomach/proventriculus/abomasum
these enzymes catalyze the degradation of the big 3 by hydrolysis. These enzymes are secreted by many organs including the salivary glands, stomach, but the bulk is secreted by the exocrine pancreas and small intestine
An enzyme is a catalyst. By nature, it is a protein. Catalysts are facilitator of chemical reaction. The one happening during digestion is called hydrolysis.
goal to break down to glycerides
not water soluble
To solubilize fatty acids that do not like to be in aqueous solution. That is the function of the BILE produced by the liver (and stored in the gallbladder)
Bile: how does it work?
Bile is made of bile salt.
Bile salt is an amphipathic molecule capable of being both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Bile salts are capable of breaking large fat droplets into smaller ones, allowing them to be accessed and cleaved by lipase.
Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
Gross anatomy of the GI tract
but also mouth, esophagus
3 types of fermenters
Foregut fermenters, midgut fermenters, hindgut fermenters
(Herbivore will have to develop a fermentation chamber to digest cellulose)
Multi-chambered stomach (where bacteria digest food) is found before the small intestine (where nutrients are absorbed). Efficient system
Rumen is mainly on what side of the animal
2 types of rabbit feces
dry pellets and cecotropes (they eat these)
Midgut fermenters examples
fishes like tilapia, carps and catfish
VFA produced by fermentation in ruminants & absorbed
VFA produced by fermentation in non-ruminants & absorbed
All other Nutrients (AA, monosaccharides, lipids)
absorb water for different functions
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