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Sociology Final Chapter 12
Terms in this set (42)
Drug Use in Perspective
Every year just two legal drugs-alcohol and tobacco- kill at least 60 times as many Americans as do all the illegal drugs combined
Drugs can be divided into three categories:
Stimulants- uppers, cocaine, crack, and nicotine. Stimulate the activity of the central nervous system, creating alertness and excitation. 2. Depressants-downers, heroin, PCP, morphin, and aspirin. Reduce activity of central nervous system- reduce anxiety, induce sleep. 3. Hallucinogens-psychadelics. LSD and MDMA. Disturb the central nervous system, altering user's perception of reality. Marijuana fits into all three categories, because it can affect the user in the same way as each category describes.
5 factors influence the effects of the drug:
1. Dosage. 2. Purity. 3. Drug mixing. Speedballs. 4. Administration. Intravenous injection-mainlining, right into bloodstream- more powerful than intramuscular injection. 5. Habituation- drug more powerful on occasional users than chronic users.
cause of all ills
cure for all ills.
most widely used drug in the US. Hasish- when only the top of the plant is harvested, which is far more psychoactively potent than marijuana. If smoked in large doses, can be physically addictive. If discontinued, user will experience withdrawal symptoms. Only mildly psychologically addictive. Marinol - purified form of weed, effective for sick people. Pot smokers use harder drugs if they associate with people do harder drugs.
P-dope. First made in 1898 from morphine. Morphine and heroin are analgesics (painkillers). Injection of substance into vain, mainlining, produces the quickest and most intense high. Heroin itself does not produce euphoric feeling- orgasmic like sensation; the user has to learn to achieve the sense of pleasure. Heroin is physically and psychologically addictive. Most addicts seek something between withdrawal avoidance and euphoria. Seek a sense of normality and control. Most users do not get addicted, because heroin gets less and less pleasurable after each experience. Street junkies suffer from narcotic laws, so poor and use all their time trying to get next hit. If they are used to no more than 5 percent heroin and use 50 percent heroin, they may die from overdoes.
coke, snow toot. Cocoa plants grown in Peru and Bolivia. Most grown in Columbia. Chosen to remedy Hay Fever Association. Vin Mariani- popular wine that has coke in it. Coke is symbol of wealth, mostly used by whites. Most expensive drug. Champagne and caviar of drugs. One can get greater high by freebasing- purifying the drug with ether and then smoking it. Coke is a stimulant. 3 effects: 1. Provides exhilaration. 2. Enhances self-confidence. 3. Increases energy and suppresses fatigue
Cheaper and less pure form of coke is crack. More intense high, usually smoked. Used more by poor and young.Both physically and psychologically addictive. Crack is more addictive than coke. Coke hits brain in about eight minutes. Crack hits brain in seconds
- Meth is an injectable stimulant also known as speed, crank, or crystal. John Kennedy and Hitler used Meth. Meth is relatively cheap and easily available, has supplanted cocaine as the drug of choice for all classes of people. Can be made from cold medicine. Congress passed the Combat Methamphetamine Act, which makes cold medications behind the counter. High lasts four or five times longer than coke.. Negative side effects are paranoia and depression.
depressant. 10 times stronger than sedative Valium. It is a prescription drug for severe insomnia. Popular in south and southwest. Put Kurt Cobain in coma for a month. Known as rohypynol, roach, rope, the forget pill, and the date rape drug.
known properly as MDMA. Psychedelic, mood altering drug. Users report they feel happy, clear mind, and improved memory. Known as hug drug. Prozac, similar drug, one of the most used drugs in world. MDMA made illegal in 1985. two problems: 1. May be impure and contain other substances. 2. Can cause brain damage due to extreme overheating.
Social Dimensions of Drug Use
Drug use is not an individual behavior, but a social behavior. Four social dimensions of drug use: 1. The extent of drug use in US. 2. How US society reacts to drug use. 3. Impact of drug use on the spread of AIDS. 4. Influence of drug use on crime.
The Extent of Drug Use
aged 18-25 have highest rate of drug use. US has highest rate of drug use in world. US high school seniors have highest rate. Drug problems are for lower classes. Teenager drug use has been rising, because of white people. Most popular is marijuana and then coke. High school blacks less likely than whites to use drugs. Drug use declined for US from 1980 to 1992 and has since remained steady.
Drugs and Crime
Drug users three to four times more likely to commit a crime.
Drugs and Aids
Intravenous injection of an illegal drug can spread HIV, which causes AIDS. Most drug users with AIDS are addicted to heroin. IV drug users don't practice safe needle use.
Drugs and Socioeconomic status-
socioeconomic status is significantly related to the type of drug being used. Higher status is connected to weed. Weed is number one drug in college and high school. Lower status is connected to heroin in past. Since the mid 1990's whites have turned to heroin because no risk of contracting aids. Cocaine connected to rich people. Crack, cheapest form of coke, known as "the poor person's drug". As for meth and roofies, mainly used by working class and young people. Ecstasy- associated with high school and college students and young professionals. Under peer influence, people turn from soft drugs to hard drugs.
Becoming a Drug User-
Four stages in the process of becoming involved with the drug.
Four stages in the process of becoming involved with the drug. Stages are 1. Experimentation 2. occasional use (once a week or less) 3. Regular use (once a day or more) 4. Futile efforts to break the habit. Heroin is most likely to go to fourth stage (addiction), because stresses continue in their life. Coke and weed are less likely for addiction.
Howard Becker has identified 3 steps in the process of learning to become weed user.
1. Technique to get high. 2. Recognize the drug effects. 3. Enjoy the drug effects. First step may be necessary for other illegal drugs, but not second or third.
Social profile of Drug Users-
1. More likely to be male than female, males more likely to use drugs heavily. 2. To be young. 3. Learn to use drugs for parents or peers. 4. Drug users in high school, when compared with nonusing peers, are less connected to school, religion, and the home.
What Causes Illegal Drug Use. Theories can be divided into three major types:-
biological, psychological, and sociological. According to biological theories, causes of drug addiction are inborn predisposition. According to psychological theories, the causes of drug use are specific personality traits, such as low self-esteem. According to sociological theories, drug use stems from social forces, such as drug subculture or peer influence. Biological theory is least credible. Psychological and sociological have more support.
Economic Deprivation Support-
link between drug use and abuse, and economic deprivation is strong. 1. Drugs can fulfill the need for status. 2. Drugs can help the user cope. 3. Drugs can provide a sense of structure to shattered lives. 4. Poor communities have lots of drugs.
Cognitive Association Theory-
explains drug use addiction alone. Addict's continuing interest in the drug has to do with its elimination of withdrawal distress, rather than its production of euphoria
combines sociological and psychological factors
Social Psychological Theory-
Prime example of societal factors is the legal drug culture of our society. Given this drug culture, people become accustomed to legal drugs so they try illegal drugs. Social factors include: 1. Lack of attachment to conventional persons or institutions. 2. Having friends who use drugs. 3. Being member of drug using subculture. 4. Easy access to drugs. Psychological reasons include: low self-esteem, self-rejection.
The War on Drugs-Consists of 2 strategies.
1. Punitive- using law enforcement to stop the supply of drugs and punish drug sellers and users. 2.Supportive- using drug prevention (or education) and treatment to solve drug problem. US devotes most of antidrug budget to law enforcement. Result is increase in incarceration of drug offenders.
Historically, the war on drugs has turned out to be a war on powerless groups, particulary minorities. First attempt to battle drugs appeared in a city ordinance against opium dens in San Francisco. Antiopium laws were Anti- Chinese laws, because they threatened white labor market. Around 1900, anti cocaine laws came about, essentially anti-black laws. 1937, Congress passed the Marihuana Tax Act, anti-hispanic act. Narcotic Drug Control Act, 1956, tough on heroin peddlers, heroin was blamed on communists. Drug laws are based on if they could effect whites.
Debate Over Legalizing Drugs-
- Advocates of legalization contend that, like prohibition, current drug laws do more harm than good. By legalizing drugs, government can take away profits from drug traffickers, end police corruption, and reduce crime drastically. Third approach to controlling drugs involves middle ground between all out criminalization and outright legalization. Solution is to reduce harm from these two different kinds of problems. May involve legalizing small amount of weed to adults but criminalizing the sale of weed to minors. Already in Netherlands.
Supportive Strategy: Prevention and Treatment
US government pays more attention to punitive strategy, but supportive strategy exists.
Drug Prevention- most popular program is DARE (Drug abuse Resistance Education). Exists in around 60 percent of US schools. Involves police officer teaching a drug education course at a local school. Dare only works for children who are unlikely to use drugs. DARE does not work for children that are likely to use drugs
Drug Treatment- three kinds of treatment exists for drug addicts
1. Chemical treatment, includes detoxification and maintenance therapy. Detoxification is use of chemical that brings patient to drug free state. By itself, cannot cure addiction. Maintenance therapy involves treatment center giving patient a drug that has almost the same chemical makeup as that of illegal drug-drug substitution. Methadone for heroin addicts.
2. Psychological therapy, incudes aversion therapy, personal therapy, and group therapy. Aversion therapy- associate drugs with unpleasant experience. Personal therapy- helping patients eliminate psychological causes of their drug abuse one therapy one on one. Group therapy- group of addicts discuss their experiences. Most positive response
3. Therapeutic community- drug addicts living together like family. Addicts help each other live drug free life. Most popular are Synanon, Odyssey House, and Phoenix House.
Abusing Prescription Drugs, Oxycotin
licit use- when patients use prescription drugs. Illicit use- when nonpatients use prescription drugs. Abuse of painkillers rising sharply Woman, whites, and people with college education more likely to abuse prescription drugs-middle class people. Several reasons for prescription drug abuse: 1. More drugs available because of more prescriptions. 2. Mistaken assumption that prescription drugs are safe because they are legal and come from doctor. 3. People that abuse prescription drugs are influenced by same social factors that encourage use of illegal drugs. Abuse increasing, because pharmaceutical companies flooding market with painkillers and doctors too quick to prescribe the drugs, Many abusers turned into "doctor shoppers". OxyContin-most powerful killer-is most popular with abusers. OxyContin is three times longer because of time-release- drug that releases after certain amount of time
1964, when US announced smoking is related to lung cancer. More dangerous and prevalent than illegal drugs. Percentage of smokers in US is among lowest in world- around 25%. Adult smokers started smoking before 18. Teenagers, whites more likely to smoke than blacks. Adults, blacks more likely than whites to smoke. Native Americans biggest smokers, Asians are lowest. Males more likely to smoke, except teenage women smoke just as much as men. Lung cancer at 40%.
mix of stimulant with depressant. Cocaine and heroin.
used as painkiller.
Oxycontin, hydrocodone, vicodin-
opium based drug really strong used as painkiller.
What 2 drugs could you withdrawal from and die
Alcohol and benzos can lead to death.
Dexedrine, Benzedrine, Methamphetamine
types of speed. Dexedrine most strong.
Trade crimes are economic crimes
Cocaine lasting effect
effects are shorter lasting than amphetamines. Doesn't last long in system at all. Take by Friday, it would be out of blood by Monday.
According to drug enslavement theory,
drug use causes crime. Because people cannot afford to pay for their drugs unless they rob or steal to get the money for their fix. May be true for deficit users, who live in poverty. Cannot be applied to leisure users, who are wealthy.
According to general deviance theory,
drug use does not crime, because most drug users with a criminal record have committed crime before using drugs. Drug use does increase the frequency of criminal activity.
Global Perspective on Smoking-
Smoking has become less prevalent in developed countries and more prevalent in developing countries. Major reason for rising prevalence is lack of laws that require warning smokers of the hazards of smoking- these laws greatly reduced smoking in developed countries. Prevalence of female smokers in developing countries has risen, because of tobacco's industry's efforts to promote smoking among women. Factors that result in increase in youths smoking: want to be cool, peer pressure, cigarettes are cheap, the advertising, and easy to get.
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