53 terms

nutrition chapter 1

the science of food and the substances they contain
orders of actions within the body
ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, excretion
broader definition of nutrition
social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating
food is derived from
plant or animal sources
food provides
energy and nutrients used by the body for growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues
food and beverages a person eats, drinks, and/or consumes
dietary quality affects
the risk of chronic disease
number 1 thing affecting food choices
functional foods
provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
example of functional foods
low fat food, OJ with calcium
chemical substances obtained from foods and used by the body
capacity to do work
chemical energy that the body can convert to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy
structural materials of a healthy 150 pound human
90 lbs. water, 20-45 lbs. fat, 15-40 lbs. protein/carbs/minerals, <1 lb vitamins/minerals
six classes or nutrients
proteins, carbs, lipids, vitamins, minerals, water
proteins yield--->
4 kcal/gm
carbs yield--->
4 kcal/gm
lipids yield--->
9 kcal/gm
refers to substance/molecule containing carbon->carbon or carbon->hydrogen bonds
organic in agriculture means
crops/livestock raised according to US department of agriculture (USDA) standards
organic nutrients
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins
inorganic nutrients
minerals, water
essential (indispensable) nutrients
must be obtained from foods because your body can't make these
contained in large amounts: proteins, carbohydrates, fat, water
contained in small amounts: vitamins, minerals
1000 calories=
1 kcal
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1 degree C
accepted macronutrient distribution ranges
carbs: 45-65% (58%)
fat: 20-35% (<30%)
protein: 10-35% (12%)
energy density
measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food
organic, not energy-yielding, 13 essential, water-soluble vs. fat-soluble, vulnerable to destruction
inorganic, not energy-yielding, 16 essential, indestructible, binding issues
inorganic, not energy yielding, essential, required for metabolic reactions, 60% of an adult's body weight
if someone else does the same study they'll get the same results
peer review
evaluated and reviewed by peers
epidemiological studies
cross-sectional study, case control study, cohort study
cross-sectional study
researchers observe how much/what kinds of foods groups of people eat and how healthy those people are
case control study
researchers compare people who do and do not have a condition/disease, closely matching them for age/gender/key variables so that differences in other factors will stand out
cohort study
researchers analyze data from a select group of people at intervals over a period of time
experimental studies
laboratory-based animal studies, laboratory-based in vitro studies
human intervention clinical trials
laboratory-based animal study
researchers feed animals special diets that provide/omit nutrients and then observe health changes
laboratory-based in vitro study
researchers examine the effects of a variable on tissue, cells, or molecules from living organisms
human intervention clinical trials
researchers ask people to adopt a new behavior to determine the effectiveness of such interventions of the development/prevention of disease
nutritional research is
research-not rumor, scientifically valid, peer reviewed, reproducible
dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in US/Canada
DRIs are used for
planning/assessing diets
estimated average requirement (EAR)
nutrient amount that maintains specific biochemical or physiological function in half the people of a given age/gender
recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
average daily nutrient amount considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy Americans, living in America, under normal stress. Meets needs of 98% of Americans
average intake (AI)
daily amount of nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specific criterion
upper level (UL)
maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people
beyond UL there is
increased health risk
any condition caused by deficient or excess food energy or nutrient intake or by a nutrient imbalance
deficient energy/nutrients
excess energy/nutrients