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the science of food and the substances they contain

orders of actions within the body

ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, excretion

broader definition of nutrition

social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating

food is derived from

plant or animal sources

food provides

energy and nutrients used by the body for growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues


food and beverages a person eats, drinks, and/or consumes

dietary quality affects

the risk of chronic disease

number 1 thing affecting food choices


functional foods

provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions

example of functional foods

low fat food, OJ with calcium


chemical substances obtained from foods and used by the body


capacity to do work


chemical energy that the body can convert to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy

structural materials of a healthy 150 pound human

90 lbs. water, 20-45 lbs. fat, 15-40 lbs. protein/carbs/minerals, <1 lb vitamins/minerals

six classes or nutrients

proteins, carbs, lipids, vitamins, minerals, water

proteins yield--->

4 kcal/gm

carbs yield--->

4 kcal/gm

lipids yield--->

9 kcal/gm


refers to substance/molecule containing carbon->carbon or carbon->hydrogen bonds

organic in agriculture means

crops/livestock raised according to US department of agriculture (USDA) standards

organic nutrients

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins

inorganic nutrients

minerals, water

essential (indispensable) nutrients

must be obtained from foods because your body can't make these


contained in large amounts: proteins, carbohydrates, fat, water


contained in small amounts: vitamins, minerals

1000 calories=

1 kcal


amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1 degree C

accepted macronutrient distribution ranges

carbs: 45-65% (58%)
fat: 20-35% (<30%)
protein: 10-35% (12%)

energy density

measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food


organic, not energy-yielding, 13 essential, water-soluble vs. fat-soluble, vulnerable to destruction


inorganic, not energy-yielding, 16 essential, indestructible, binding issues


inorganic, not energy yielding, essential, required for metabolic reactions, 60% of an adult's body weight


if someone else does the same study they'll get the same results

peer review

evaluated and reviewed by peers

epidemiological studies

cross-sectional study, case control study, cohort study

cross-sectional study

researchers observe how much/what kinds of foods groups of people eat and how healthy those people are

case control study

researchers compare people who do and do not have a condition/disease, closely matching them for age/gender/key variables so that differences in other factors will stand out

cohort study

researchers analyze data from a select group of people at intervals over a period of time

experimental studies

laboratory-based animal studies, laboratory-based in vitro studies
human intervention clinical trials

laboratory-based animal study

researchers feed animals special diets that provide/omit nutrients and then observe health changes

laboratory-based in vitro study

researchers examine the effects of a variable on tissue, cells, or molecules from living organisms

human intervention clinical trials

researchers ask people to adopt a new behavior to determine the effectiveness of such interventions of the development/prevention of disease

nutritional research is

research-not rumor, scientifically valid, peer reviewed, reproducible

dietary reference intakes (DRIs)

a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in US/Canada

DRIs are used for

planning/assessing diets

estimated average requirement (EAR)

nutrient amount that maintains specific biochemical or physiological function in half the people of a given age/gender

recommended dietary allowance (RDA)

average daily nutrient amount considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy Americans, living in America, under normal stress. Meets needs of 98% of Americans

average intake (AI)

daily amount of nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specific criterion

upper level (UL)

maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people

beyond UL there is

increased health risk


any condition caused by deficient or excess food energy or nutrient intake or by a nutrient imbalance


deficient energy/nutrients


excess energy/nutrients

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