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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Moloney US History Final Part 2
Terms in this set (20)
Who: Missouri, Missouri's territorial government, The House of Representatives, the senate, Henry Clay (steered the Missouri Compromise through The House of Represtatives)
What:admitted Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. Added an ammendement to prohibit slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory North of Missouri's southern boundary. This would allow slavery to expand into Arkansas territory south of Missouri, but it would keep it out of the rest of the Louisiana Purchase. The next year, Missouri became the twenty fourth state.
When: March 1820
Significance: the union was able to keep the balance by admitting Maine as the 12th free state and Missuouri the 12th Slavs state.
Who: Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, Henry Clay of Kentucky, and John Quincy Adams of Massachuset.
What: during the election campaign of 1824, four republicans ran for president. In accordance with the Consitution, the decision would go to the House of Representatives, who would select a president from the top three with the most votes. Henry clay placed 4th and was eliminated. However, Clayhad a tremendous amount of influence and threw his support to John Quincy Adams. Adams won the election with 13 votes to Andrew Jacksons 7. Andrew Jacksons supporters immediately accused the pair of striking a corrupt bargain, where Clay secured votes for Adams. This was untrue. However, Jacksons outraged supporters decided to call themselves the Jacksonians and were Democratic (Democrats)
When: Election campaign took place in 1824 and John Quincy Adams was elected February 9,1825
Significance: leaving the presidential election up to the House of Representatives created long lasting conflict between Democrats and Republicans
Who: emigrants and Americans
What: the idea that the nation was meant to spread to the Pacific
When:between the 1830s and early 1860s
Where: began with the Lousisiana purchase and pushes toward the Pacific
Significance: it was the Oprotunity to farm, enter into trade, or trade with foreign markets across the pacific that lured farmers, adventurers, and merchants.
Seneca Falls Convention
Who: Activists Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
What: the convention issued the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, better known as the Seneca Falls Declaration. This was a women's reform movement and It began with words expanding the Declaration of Independence, that men and women are equal. It then discussed the right to vote
When: New York 1848
Where: New York
Significance: this gathering of women reformers marked the beginning of an organized women's movement and later women began organizing conventions to promote greater rights for themselves
California Gold Rush
Who: James Marshal, San Franciscans, "forty niners"
What: James Marshall found traces of gold in a stream near a sawmil in Sacramento California. When the word leaked out, San Franciscans abandoned their homes and buisnesses to pile into wagons and head to the mountains in search of gold.
When: January 1848
Where: Coloma, near Sacramento California.
Significance: step toward California statehood before 1850
Who: Chinese immigrants
What:In the 1850s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but also to take agricultural jobs, and factory work, especially in the garment industry.
When: 1850s and 1870s
Where: United States
Significance: this was the start of immigration
Compromise of 1850
What: allowing California to come in as a free state and organizing the rest of Mexico cession without any restrictions on slavery. Clay further proposed that congress would be prohibited from interfering with the domestic slave trade and would pass a stricter law to help southerners recover run away slaves. This assured the South that the North wasn't trying to abolish slavery after California joined the union.
When: July 1850
Significance: ensured that the North wasn't trying to abolish slavery if California came into the union. Kept the balance between free and slave states
Who: thousands of armed Missourians (pro-slavery, "border ruffians") & northern antislavery settlers
What: Northerns went to Kansas to create antislavery majority, before march elections border ruffians crossed border to vote illegally (helping to elect pro-slavery legislature), more Northerns arrived, border ruffians began attacks
When: March 1856
Significance: antislavery settlers drafted own constitution prohibiting slavery, Kansas gov set up 2 gov (one opposed slavery, other supporting it), "Bleeding Kansas" as newspapers dubbed territory became scene of territorial civil war
Dred Scott Decision
Who: Dred Scott (Missouri slave who had been taken to north to work in free territory for several years)
What: After he returned, he sued to end his slavery, arguing living in free territory made him a free man, case went to Supreme Court, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled vs Scott claimed AA weren't citizens & couldn't sue, addressed Missouri Compromise's ban on slavery
When: March 6, 1857
Significance: Democrats/ Republicans argued if DS couldn't sue, then Supreme Court shoudn't have dismissed the case without constitutionality of Missouri Compromise, after DSD conflict in "Bleeding Kansas" intensified, Buchanan urged territory to apply for statehood, pro-slavery legislature scheduled election for delegates to constitutional convention, but antisalvery Kansans boycotted it, resulting constitution drafted in 1857 in Lecompton legalized slavery in territory
Presidential Election of 1860
Who: Stephen Douglas & John C. Breckinridge (Democrats), John Bell (Whigs), Abraham Lincoln (Republicans)
What: After the slavery issue split the Democratic Party, the election of 1860 evolved into a 4 way race, other candidates were for compromise or extension of slavery, Lincoln believed slavery was morally wrong/opposed its spread into w territories, Rep proposals angered Southerners, but with demo divided, Lincoln won by winning electoral votes of all free states except New Jersey (votes split w Douglas)
Significance: Southerns viewed Lincoln's election as threat to society/ culture, no choice but to secede, dissolution of union began w S. Carolina, state legislature called for convention, convention voted to repeal state's ratification/dissolve ties to Union, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas voted to secede, minority didn't want to, majority viewed secession similar to american revolution- necessary ti uphold people's rights
Who: Abraham Lincoln
What: Decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863
When: September 22, 1862
Significance: Proclamation freed enslaved AA only in states at war with the Union, didn't address slavery in border states, Lincoln couldn't end slavery in border states, nor did he want to endanger their loyalty, Proclamation transformed the conflict over preserving the Union into a war of liberation
Advantages vs Disadvantages of North & South in Civil War
Who: North & South
What: North Adantages
strong naval tradition, more ammunition, larger population, economy was strong, banking industry raised $ for war, cities next to railroad tracks
soldiers had to conquer large area to bring south back to union, strong military leaders in S, little inflation, invading unfamiliar land
strong military tradition, 7/8 military colleges, strong military leaders
believed they were superior fighters, went on offensive in 8 battles, 2000 died, smaller population, weak economy, inflation, half as many miles in railroad tracks, more than 1/3 population was enslaved = fewer soldiers
Where: The Battle of Antietam, west, vicksburg, gettysburg, fought in South
Three Plans for Reconstruction
Who: Lincoln, Congress, Johnson
Amnesty to all but a few Southerners who took an oath of loyalty to US & accepted its proclamations concerning slavery
10% state's voters in 1860 presidential election had taken oath, could organize new state gov
members of former confederte gov, officers of con army, & former fed judges, members of congress, & military officers who had left their posts to help confederacy would not receive amnesty
passed 14th & 15th amendments
military reconstruction act divided the S into 5 military districts
new state constitutions required to guarantee voting rights
military rule protecte voting rights for AA
empowered AA in gov & supported their education
amnesty for those taking an oath of loyalty to the US; excluded high-ranking confederates & those w property over $20000 but they could apply for pardons individually
required states to ratify the 13th amendment abolishing slavery
When: December 1863, summer 1864
Significance: rebuilding the nation after the war, after civil war, 3 plans were proposed to restore South to Union, political struggle that resulted revealed that sectional tensions had not ended w civial war
Who: Congress, war refugees in south
What: directed to feeding/clothing war refugees in south using surplus army supplies
When: March 1865
Significance: helped formly enslaved people find work on plantations & negotiated labor contracts w planters, however Congress refused to confirm right of AA to own lands that had been seized from plantation owners & given to them
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
Who: 13th: Lincoln (democrats democrats and republicans opposed slavery)
14th: radical republicans introduced, Jackson opposed
15th: Radical Republicans wanted to expand (and recognized the importance of African American suffrage); congress passed
What: all: called the Civil War Amendments (all created at the end/after the war)
13th: outlaws slavery
14th: prohibits a state from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without "due process of law." States that all citizens have the right to equal protection of the laws in all states.
15th: prohibits the govt from denying a person's right to vote on the basis of race
When: 13th: January 1865 -- after Lincoln's reelection
14th: Passed in 1868.
Where: all: affected the South
14th: President Johnson attacked the 14th amendment and made it issue of 1966 congressional elections. 1867, Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act (which nullified Johnson's programs) and split the former Confederacy into 5 military districts.
15th: Changed Southern society: brought thousands of African Americans into political process. Despite the law, many states denied African Americans the right to vote with teh creation of poll taxes, literacy tests, and white primaries.
Who: Southern Legislatures passed black codes. Congressional Republicans were angry.
What: intended to keep African Americans in a condition similar to slavery. Required blacks to enter into annual labor contracts. Those who didn't could be arrested for vagrancy andforcd into involuntary servitude.
Why: Many whites in the South did not want blacks taking better jobs: they created laws to prohibit/make it difficult for blacks to obtain nonagricultural jobs.
Significance: Black codes became a big reason for republican reforms. Black Codes were a step back for African Americans (they got the right to vote, yet governments found ways around the laws, and were not allowed to have better jobs)
Jim Crow Laws
Who: Southern states
What: Laws that enforced discrimination
When: after Reconstruction (after 1877)
Why: Southern states wanted segregation (separation of the races)
Significance: caused civil rights cases. The 14th amendment said that no state could deny citizens equal protection under the law; jim crow laws were a way around (private organizations like hotels, theaters, and railroads were free to practice segregation)
Who: African Americans, white plantation owners
What: Most tenant farmers became sharecroppers who paid their rent a share of their crops to cover their rent as well as the materials they needed.
When: post 1877
Why: collapse of reconstruction ended blacks' hopes of owning land in South, many returned to working for white plantation owners as tenant farmers (paying rent for land they farmed).
Significance: A crop lien system trapped most sharecroppers because they couldn't pay off their debts and leave, nor declare bankruptcy..failure to pay off debts could lead to imprisonment or forced labor. The Civil War ended slavery but Reconstruction left many African Americans trapped in poverty.
Who: Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, African Americans,
What: Singleton was convinced that African Americans would never get a chance to get ahead in the South, so he urged others to move west (specifically to Kansas) to form their own communities where they could help each other get ahead. His ideas set a mass migration in motion,
Where: African Americans from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas moved to Kansas
When: 1879 (post Reconstruction)
Why: The South was controlled by men who owned slaves (wanted to keep African Americans in the lowest class/conditions possible). African Americans wanted to get away from the South and moved to Kansas to build a better life for themselves.
Significance: African Americans began to prove that they were worthy of full citizenship (their new rights) by creating new communities.
Dawes Act of 1887 & 41) Assimilation of Native Americans
Who: Congress passed.
What: allotted 160 acres of reservation land for farming to the head of household, 80 acres for single adults, and 40 acres for children. The remaining land would be sold to American settlers; proceeds went into trust for Native Americans. Granted citizenship to Indians who stayed on their homestead for 25 years.
Why: Some Americans opposed the treatment of Native Americans (supported Act). Helen Hunt Jackson (writer) wrote about the injustices against Native Americans.
Significance: Failed. Most Indians didn't have any training for farming to be effective/supportive. Allotments were too small. No legislation could provide a satisfactory solution to the Native American issue. Native Americans were basically doomed because Americans ruined everything that they lived off of. Tried to force assimilation (Native Americans absorbed into American society).
Recommended textbook explanations
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
America Pathways to the Present
Allan M. Winkler, Andrew Cayton, Elisabeth Israels Perry, Linda Reed
Deborah Gray White, Edward L. Ayers, Jesús F. de la Teja, Robert D. Schulzinger
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