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Chapter 14 Strayer

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Spanish Empire
1400s- Late 1900s. Made up of territories and colonies in Europe, Africa, and Asia controlled from Spain. At its strongest, it was one of the biggest empires in world history according to how much land they had, and one of the 1st global empires. Royalty from the Castile and Aragon kingdoms ruled it. Christopher Colombus led the first Spanish exploration trip which led them to colonizing America.
Portuguese Empire
Bustling trade empire built throughout the Indian Ocean. Extended control after defeating Muslim fleet and captured Goa which was made the capital of their trading empire. After this they seized the Strait of Malacca which gave them control of the Moluccas also known as the Spice Islands.
British Empire
Formerly the United Kingdom and all the territories under its control.
French Empire
Empire control in Canada, Ohio, and Mississippi River Valley with Louisiana. Religious: Jesuits. Positive indigenous relations. Fur trade. Coureurs du bois.
Dutch Empire
Established by Dutch East India Company and soon replaced Portugal as leader in Spice Islands introducing and maintaining Monopoly on coffee and sugar and become only European allowed to trade with Japan before empire declined b/c war w/ Britain.
Hernan Cortes
1485-1547, Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico.
Aztec Empire
Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded greatly during the fifteenth century during the reigns of Itzcoatl and Moctezuma I (Montezuma.)
Moctezuma I
(1466-1520) Aztec ruler from 1502 to 1520; he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortés and his army conquered the empire. He was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army.
Atahualpa
(1497-1533) An Incan ruler who was kidnapped by Pizarro during his attempt to keep the spanish from entering his territory. He offered to fill a room with gold and silver in exchange for his release. The ransom was accepted, but the ruler was strangled by the Spanish.
The Great Dying
Killed around 90% of native Americans. Caused by diseases brought over by Europeans to which Natives didn't have an immunity. Many died of smallpox, measles, influenza, yellow fever, malaria and typhus while others died of starvation because they were too sick to get food or eat.
The Columbian Exchange
Global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas. Important foods: potatoe, corn, tomato, sugar cane. Spread of diseases: Syphilis, Typhus, Flu, Measles, Smallpox, Malaria.
Manioc
The most important American crop introduced into Africa in the sixteenth century.
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
Old World
The regions of the world that were known to Europeans before the discovery of the Americas.
New World
A term for the Americas (and sometimes other non-European areas) during the Age of Exploration.
Mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Creoles
American born descendants of Europeans.
Peninsulares
Europeans who were born on the Iberian Peninsula of Spain or Portugal that went to the New World.
Miguel Cabrera
(1695-1768) A painter from New Spain (Mexico) who was widely acclaimed as a great artist. Painted mixed-race peoples of the New World.
Mestizo
A new racial concept that developed in Latin America following the intermixing that occurred between European colonists and the native American population.
Indians
The Europeans referred to the Native Americans at the bottom of the newly developed social structures as...
Maize
An early form of corn grown by Native Americans. In addition to beans and squash was the most important element of Central American diets.
Tupac Amaru
Mestizo leader of Indian revolt (1780-1781) in Peru; supported by many in the lower social classes; revolt failed because of creole fears of real social revolution.
Sugar
Food product originally from New Guinea. Arabs introduced it into the Mediterranean where Europeans learned the technique of its production and transferred it to their Atlantic island possessions and then to the Americas.
Mulattoes
In colonial Latin America, people of mixed Spanish and African descent who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
Less Racial Mixing
In contrast to most Latin American colonies, there were fewer children born of mixed-race parents in British North America and a sharply defined racial system developed.
Slavery
In order to produce sugar in large quantities, Latin American plantations imported slaves from Africa. In parts of North America they tended to work on tobacco and cotton plantations.
Parliament
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation. In Britain, this already was well established by the time that they began colonizing overseas. It checked the authority of kings.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America to escape religious persecution and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Quakers
A group of religious pacifists who were persecuted in Europe. William Penn established Pennsylvania as a safe haven for them.
Protestant
Beginning in the 16th century, many Western European Christians began to reject the authority of the Pope and began to establish their own churches. The followers of these churches were called...
Russian Empire
(1500-1800) The empire stretched from E. Europe and the Baltic Sea to Siberia and the Pacific. Ivan III overthrew the Mongols take over additional land. Meanwhile, Ivan solidified a centralized rule and claimed divine ordination. He proclaimed Moscow to be the new capital of the new empire. (Where Russia is Today)
Pelts
The "soft gold" that drove Russian expansion.
Yasak
Tribute that Russian rulers demanded from the native peoples of Siberia, most often in the form of fur.
Sable
A weasel-like animal from the old-world that had an extremely valuable fur that the Russians sold on world markets.
Catherine the Great
(1762-1796) An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port.
Cossacks
The "vanguard" of Russian expansion across Siberia. Bands of warriors consisting of peasants who had escaped serfdom.
Russification
A tsarist program that required non-Russians to speak only Russian and provided education only for those groups loyal to Russia.
Mughal Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Ottoman Empire
A Muslim empire based in Turkey that lasted from the 1300's to 1922.
Turks
Central Asian nomads related to the Xiongnu peoples that pressured Han China. Set up empires throughout Eurasia. Organized as tribes that constantly fought each other. Most converted to Islam. They were primarily herders, using animal products to live (skins, meat, milk, bones, dung, etc). Not a large population because of limited water on the grasslands. Nobility was hereditary but could be lost through incompetence. Most societies sought to trade with settled people. Nobles controlled absolutely in times of war.
Zheng He
(1371-1433?) Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death.
Qing Dynasty
(1644-1911 CE), the last imperial dynasty of China which was overthrown by revolutionaries; was ruled by the Manchu people: began to isolate themselves from Western culture.
Manchuria
An area northeast of the Great Wall of China that conquered China and ruled during the Qing Dynasty.
Zunghars
Western Mongol group that created a substantial state (1671-1760); their threat provoked Qing expansion into Central Asia.
Treaty of Nerchinsk
The first treaty between China and Russia that helped set the borders for the two nations (1689.)
Court of Colonial Affairs
Bureaucratic institution developed by the Qing Dynasty which helped Manchus establish an identity; ruled the rest of China.
Timur
Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire.
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. Removed the special jizya tax on non-Muslim people in South Asia and restrained the more militant ulama.
Rajputs
Members of a mainly Hindu warrior caste from northwest India. The Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar I married a Rajput princess.
Jahangir
Akbar's son, "Grasper of the World" promoted Islam in the empire, but was still tolerant of others.
Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
(1564-1624) Indian Islamic scholar from Punjab; claimed to want to "renew" authentic Islam in the Mughal Empire and strongly rejected the synthesis that Akbar was bringing about in India between Islam and Hinduism. He encouraged Mughal emperors to enforce the jizya, impose sharia, and remove non-Muslims from high office.
Aurangzeb
(1658-1707) Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great' - under whom the empire reached its greatest extent. Embraced the philosophies of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi. The Mughal Empire collapsed shortly after his death and was conquered by the British.
Sati
A Hindu practice where the widow of a fallen husband followed him to death by throwing herself on his funeral pyre.
Ottoman Safavid War
A century-long conflict from 1534-1639 in which the Sunni Ottomans fought the Shiite Safavids.
Istanbul
Capital of the Ottoman Empire; named this after 1453 and the sack of Constantinople.
Balkans
A large peninsula in southeastern Europe that was conquered by the Ottoman Turks after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453. Remained largely Christian even after the conquest.
Devshirme
Ottoman policy of taking boys from Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers.
Janissaries
In the Ottoman Empire, Christian boys were captured in the devshirme and turned into special slave-soldiers of the sultan called...
Siege of Vienna
Under the rule of Sultan Suleyman, the Ottoman empire first tried to conquer Vienna, Austria in 1529 (which was the extent of the Ottoman empire into central Europe.) In 1683, the Battle of Vienna removed the Ottomans from central Europe.
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