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radiology exam 2: rad bio pt 3
Terms in this set (44)
BWs allow for _____ to be diagnosed 3x more likely than just visual exams
4 types of bone loss viewed with a radiograph
Lingual root of mand first molar is commonly found in what 2 populations?
asians (hong kong and taiwan)
3 things that can cause basal bone pathology in the jaws
2. systemic diseases
3. hyperdontia (most common in premolar area)
hyperdontia is most common where in mouth?
8 benefits of dental radiography
1. caries dx
2. severity and depth of the caries
3. bone loss/ attachment loss
4. periradicular health status
5. basal bone pathology (cancer, hyperdontia)
6. root configuration
7. assess anatomy for implants
8. 3rd molar roots and IAC
goals for oral and maxillofacial radiology
1. reduce radiation exposure
2. maintain high degree of diagnostic efficiency
as low as reasonably achievable
As Low As Diagnostically Acceptable
ALADA lowers exposure to __ and ___
patients and all office personell
2 MANDATED ways to reduce radiation exposure via the tube head
collimation and filtration
filtration lowers the ___ by ___
lowers the RAD by filtering out lower energyKeV) xray photons, which increases the energy of the beam
increasing filtration ___ the mean energy of the beam
ex: 0.5 mm aluminum= 50 kev
2.5 mm aluminum= 70 keV
mandated max diameter for exit side collimation
how does collimation lower exposure?
decreases beam size (2.75" max)
4 OPTIONAL ways to decreases radaition exposure via the tube head
1. rectangular collimation
2. high kV transformer
3. constant potential (DC) fully rectified
4. increase focal length
rectangular collimation that lights up green or red to indicate if you PID is properly aligned; bulky
universal rectangular collimation
an adapter that goes on the end of the PID that allows for rectangular collimation on a round PID
higher keV= ___ electrons hitting anode= ___ photons= higher image ____
faster xray phtons
higher image quality
although higher keV units lower patient radiation dose, why are they not used frequently?
heavy and bulky
increasing the cone length will ____ the radiation absorbed dose
increasing kVp will _____ the radiation absorbed dose
DC tube head benefits
lower patient dose
higher quality of image with varaible tube voltage
3 benefits of long BID
(increasing focal length)
1. 27% less tube head volume
2. sharper image, reduces pnembura
3. decreases effective dose
recessed xray tube
the focal spot is moved farther back in the xray tube to increase the focal length without increasing the length of the PID as much-> increases image sharpness and reduces effective dose
a recessed xray tube increases the focal length to ____ mm
4 mechanism of dose reduction that are "pratice options"
1. thyroid lead collars
2. receptor holding devices that help with beam alignment
3. film speed
4. time-temperature quality control processing
which solid sensor provides the lowest radiation dose?
(more sensitive than the others)
which film speed provides the lowest radiation dose
F speed= fast
difference between PSP and solid state?
in solid state, the digital processing occurs right at the sensor
are lead aprons mandated?
yes, required by law even though science shows they are NOT needed with the use of collimation
are thyroid collars mandated?
no, and they are more important than the lead apron
should the patient hold the receptor?
increases somatic dose and is not needed
dosimeters are required to be worn by
any full-time operator of radiographic equipment
full-time operators of radiographic equipment exposure limit
50 mSv full body exposure annually
5 mSv if pregnant
portable, hand-held dental xray unit
exemption for hand-held dental units (3 rules)
1. must have backscatter shield
2. personell must wear dosimeter and evaluate it monthly
3. operators must be trained to use them
for adult and adolescents with permanent dentition who have hx of extensive dental disease and tx, what radiographs are preferred?
for adult and adolescents with permanent dentition who are just standard patients with caries, what radiographs are preffered?
BWs and pano
BWS and selected PAs
for children with mixed or priamry dentition with closed contacts, what radiogrpahs are preferred?
for children with mixed or priamry dentition with open contacts, what radiographs are preferred?
when to take recall exam BW radiographs for an adult
high caries risk= 6-18 month
low caries risk= 24-36 months
when to take recall exam BW radiographs of adolescent
high caries risk= 6-12 months
low caries risk= 18-36 months
when to take recall exam BW radiographs of child with mixed or priamry dentition?
high caries risk= 6-12 months
low caries risk= 12-24 months
Sets found in the same folder
Radiology, week 1
radiology week 2
radiology, weeks 3 and 4
radiology exam 2: lecture 1 and 2
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