Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Anthropology Quizzes 2
Terms in this set (85)
What is an explanation for the logic underlying magic, sorcery, and shamanism?
Law of Sympathy
A likely key to successful shamanic healing:
the patient must suspend any disbelief about the validity of supernatural powers.
assumes that particular cultural traits may have a role in maintaining the culture.
What is the soul concept used by tribal individuals as an intellectual explanation of life, death, and dream experiences?
According to Levy-Bruhl, the most critical aspect of the thinking of tribal peoples was that it assumed a "mystic" reality based on:
a socially-conditioned belief in imperceptible forces.
Tribal societies in effect maintain public health by:
emphasizing prevention of disease.
British anthropologist E. B. Tylor argued that religion developed out of:
Dr. Eastwell concluded that Australian Aboriginal deaths attributed to "fear of sorcery syndrome" or "voodoo death" might have actually involved:
patient-assisted euthanasia by means of dehydration.
The typical diet of domestic-scale subsistence foragers and farmers is:
the most ideal human diet, low in fat, salt, and refined sugars, and high in fiber and vitamin C.
The shaman's trance state:
can be entered and terminated at will and does not involve loss of consciousness.
American anthropologist Franz Boas attributed differences in thought between tribal peoples and "civilized" peoples to:
social or cultural differences.
While functionalist anthropology can lead researchers to uncover otherwise unsuspected connections between cultural elements, functionalist explanations are logically flawed because:
the functions of a particular trait can often be satisfied by some other trait.
An international panel of health experts that was convened by the United Nations in 2002 attributed a wide range of chronic noncommunicable diseases to:
unhealthy dietary and lifestyle changes associated with industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization.
The wide diversity of twentieth-century anthropological interpretations of shamanism is illustrated by Kroeber's textbook declaration that shamanism was:
a culturally accepted psychopathology.
Medical anthropologists discovered that the Yanomamo Indians who were living independently:
had high natural immunities to local pathogens and high infant mortality rates, and were in excellent physical condition.
Staniland Wake's discussion of the "moral defects" of Australian Aborigines is an example of:
ethnocentrism and etic interpretations.
Dr. Cleave discovered that tribal peoples prevented the saccharine disease and its complex of related diseases of civilization by means of:
high fiber, low salt, and low fat diet.
What is the mental, ideological, or belief systems as expressed in the religion, myths, and rituals of a culture?
Levi-Strauss argued that tribal peoples use mythical thought, which:
used a limited set of signs ordered into structured relationships that help people understand reality while providing aesthetic satisfaction.
Rituals associated with the Wawilak myth in Aboriginal Australia may provide effective psychotherapeutic effects because:
symbols may influence the body-mind relationship and help people improve their self-perceptions.
Modern physical anthropology, linguistics, and archaeology demonstrates conclusively that the Pacific islands were settled by:
skilled navigators from Southeast Asia.
Two headed Hawaiian child:
child with two fathers in a punalua co-spouse relationship.
Micronesian navigation systems depended on:
a formal body of empirical and mythical knowledge that included an elaborate star chart.
The paramount chief of a complex chiefdom, in comparison to a district chief or the chief of a simple chiefdom:
is likely to have a power of ten greater power.
The elaborate Hawaiian cosmology, involving a creation myth, temples, annual rituals of human sacrifice, divine kings, rigid taboos, and feasting, was:
an elite construction, designed by and for the elite.
The Polynesian system of mana:
provided supernatural support for chiefly status.
the first politically-centralized societies.
a vast triangle composed of high volcanic islands scattered across the Pacific.
The development and expansion of the Hawaiian chiefdoms best exemplifies:
the importance of the political economy.
According to Firth, "the most important single human factor in the economic life of Tikopia" was:
The irrigation systems were especially important for the development of chiefdoms on Hawaii because:
they helped produce the surplus that supported the elites.
The curiously curved shell fishhook used by Pacific islanders:
was actually more effective than European-style steel fishhooks.
Pacific island societies were aristocracies based on:
belief in the inherent superiority of a line of descent.
Archaeological research on the Polynesian outlier island of Tikopia revealed that after 3,000 years of continuous human occupation:
the land area expanded, and the natural forest was largely replaced by a system of permanent gardens and arboriculture.
From a cultural materialist perspective, Hawaii would be a likely place for chiefdoms to develop because:
it has rich environmental resources.
The "Work of the Gods" on Tikopia:
rituals for island-wide welfare controlled by highest chief.
Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.
It seems likely that the redistribution system on Hawaii:
primarily benefited the elite, not the commoners.
A cultural materialist anthropologist, such as Sahlins, would attribute the rise of chiefdoms to:
richness of island resources and the importance of the chief as economic redistributor of surplus production.
The chiefs on Tikopia derived their authority from:
their religious position as hereditary representatives of important ancestral deities.
Chiefdoms, as larger-scale societies in comparison to tribes:
restrict human freedom and apportion benefits unequally.
On Lamotrek, as throughout much of the Pacific Island region, the most important food plant in the diet is, by weight:
mostly small coral atolls north of Melanesia.
What is a religious system based on reverence for specific ancestors, sometimes involving shrines, rituals, and sacrifice?
Hindu distinctions between boiled (kacha) and fried (pakka) foods:
encode status differences in reference to concepts of purity and impurity.
What is the ritual obligation of children to respect their ancestors (Hsiao)?
What is a state government based on religious authority or divine guidance called, in which the Chinese emperor was the highest civil and religious leader?
The four Hindu varna are ranked from highest to lowest as follows:
Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra.
All law in the Hindu kingdom was ultimately vested in the:
What are ritual beliefs or practices following by nonliterate commoners?
The concept of "Liturgical Government" refers to the Chinese system of:
moral nationalism holding the empire together in the absence of overt political or military force.
Women in Chinese society:
could own their private earnings and personal belongings, and they had important ritual responsibilities in domestic ritual.
"Inequalities are in the nature of things" represents:
Ancient Aryans were:
Indo-European speaking, cattle herding chiefdom invaders of India.
The ideal Chinese family was:
a joint family with two or more married sons.
a virtual state cult advocating filial piety and perpetuating the ritual and political traditions at the core of Chinese civilization.
According to classical Hindu scholars, art is supposed to be:
for everyone's moral improvement and pleasure.
unequal access to both high social status and basic resources.
Chinese high shamanism:
full-time ritual specialists in exclusive communication with ancestors and deities that support the social hierarchy.
Ancient village-states such as Inca Peru and Imperial China:
drew their support from peasant villages scattered over a vast region.
The basic unit of the Chinese Little Tradition, or Folk Society, consisted of:
the eighteen or so villages of perhaps 7,000 people grouped around a standard market town.
What do you call it when someone marries someone of a higher rank?
What is the culture of the elite in a state-organized society called?
Jules Henry says the dependence of American culture on the deliberate creation of needs for goods and services contributes to what?
the "psychic revolution" with impacts on human thought and behavior.
Marvin Harris, as a cultural materialist, argues that cultural preferences for specific meats are largely determined by:
utilitarian, ecological, and economic factors.
The dominant role of competitive commercial production in American culture is related to:
technological innovation, increased output, and more concentrated economic control.
The corporatization process, as it developed in the United States from 1810 through the 1890s, shifted power to large corporations as a result of:
elite-directed legislation, supported by court decisions.
Americans who believe in utopian capitalism assume that:
everyone can rise to any economic level by intelligence, hard work, and creative energy.
America has been called a "Patchwork Nation" because:
America is an extremely diverse nation.
The introduction of factory farming in Whitman County Washington was accompanied by the following changes between 1910 and 1987:
wheat yields increased, farms grew larger, and rural population declined.
What is a corporation that primarily exists to own other companies called?
Historians who examined property ownership throughout nineteenth-century America concluded that:
wealth was heavily concentrated at the top of the social hierarchy, but there was still significant upward mobility.
In sharp contrast to the production/consumption situation in the tribal world, industrial production and the market economy means that in American culture:
needs are culturally increased above the level that can ever be satisfied.
Marshall Sahlins argues that Americans eat steak rather than liver because:
it reinforces one's social rank.
A detailed analysis of the distribution of property ownership revealed a strong correlation between:
wealth concentration and support for the Constitution.
Chinese-American anthropologist Francis Hsu proposed that what American ideal explains racial and religious intolerance which coexists with an expressed belief in equality?
The U.S. economy in GDP was the second largest in the world in 2017. It was approximately:
In comparison with ideology and practice in the ancient imperial world, one of the most radical features of the U.S. Constitution as of 1791 was its:
guarantee of individual freedom of religion, speech, and other civil rights.
American "Factory farming" is characterized by:
high per acre yields, energy subsidies, and no sustainability.
As a commercial enterprise in the United States, the production and distribution of beef is characterized by:
extreme specialization and concentration of ownership and control at all levels.
What are profits from the sale of financial or property assets such as stocks or real estate called?
The most striking feature of the American cosmology, in contrast to the cosmologies of domestic- and commercial-scale cultures, is that:
the economy is supreme, and all things are considered to be market-regulated commodities.
Marshall Sahlins, who was influenced by the structuralist interpretations of Levi-Strauss, argues that cultural preferences for specific meats are largely determined by:
a cultural code of edibility.
A careful look at American business elites in the 1990s revealed that:
A very small number of owners and managers exercise real power over American business.
The underlying cultural changes that transformed American business between 1850 and 1890 were directed by:
large investors and corporate boards who hired professional managers to run ever larger-scale business enterprises.
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 9 Terms
Anthropology Final Exam (Key Terms)
Other sets by this creator
Review Problem Vocab Ch 1-3
Developmental Psychology Exam 3
Psychology Exam 2
Developmental Psychology Chapter 1 Quiz