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This reviews most of what we've covered in class over the past few weeks.

Around what year did the Middle Ages begin?


What caused the Middle Ages to begin?

The Roman Empire collapsed because of a series of political, economic, and social problems.

Who maintained political order during the Middle Ages?

Lords maintained political order.

Economically, was Western Europe bankrupt with the collapse of Rome?

Yes, Western Europe was bankrupt.

During the Middle Ages why was trade limited and why were various localities isolated?

The barbarian invasions limited trade and caused areas to be isolated.

What was the source of Medieval weath?

Land was the source of Medieval wealth.

Who owned land during the Middle Ages?

Lords owned land.

What was the economic system of Europe called?

It is known as a feudal or manorial society.

In the Middle Ages, who were considered lower class?

Serfs were considered lower class.

When did the Dark Ages end?

They ended around the year 1000.

In Medieval Europe, what social class all but disappeared?

The merchants almost all but disappeared.

What was the united, Western Europe under the authority of the Church called?

It was called Christendom.

Because of a lack of any real political authority, who usurped all authority?

The Pope was able to usurp authority.

When did the High Middle Ages begin?

The High Middle Ages began around the year 1000.

What event illustrated the end of the Dark Ages?

The Crusades illustrated the end of the Dark Ages.

What were the Crusades?

The Crusades were an attempt by Western Europe to assert authority in the Middle Ages.

What was the first free group of peasants?

Artisans (skilled workers) were the first free group of peasants.

What caused the social status of merchants to rise drastically?

As European goods became demanded, the social class of the merchants rose.

In the Late Middle Ages civil wars were fought by whom?

Kings and Lords fought.

What political concept formed at the end of the civil wars in the Late Middle Ages?

The concept of monarchies formed.

As the High Middle Ages continued, the absolute authority of what group and what single person dwindled?

The authority of Lords and the Pope began to dwindle.

In Burckhardts perspective, who were the "firstborn among sons of modern Europe"?

The Italians

What 3 key things did Burckhardt see form in the birth of the modern era?

Antiquity, Secularism, Individulism

Who ignored the religious sentiment of the modern era?


During the Renaissance, economic development was a continuation of what?

The Middle Ages (1250-1500)

During the Renaissance, political development was a continuation of what?

Urban society of Northern Italy

During the Renaissance, social development was a continuation of what?

The increasing power of the upper class and a weakening of lower class

Who said that "Men can do all things if they Will."?


Northern Italian commerce continued to grow since it was free from what?

Barbarian Invasions

What was the Hansa (Hanseatic League)?

A commercial and military association of Northern German coastal towns formed in the hopes of attracting economic attention of the Northern Italians.

What aided in the economic recovery of Northern Europe?

The Ventian Flanders Fleet

In the 15th century, what Italian city regained its preeminence in banking?


The House of Medici had branches in what cities?

Rome, Milan, Venice

Who wrote the Book of the Courtier?


According to Castiglione, what values should a noble possess?

Endowments such as talent and impeccable grace; Physically Educated as well as in classical education or the arts, and; Follow Morals and Ethics

Who formed the burghers?

Merchants and Artisans

Eventually, what were petty burghers?

Shopkeepers, Artisans, Guildmasters

Propertyless workers and slaves were below which social group?


What was the concept that an individual can become a well-rounded and beneficial person to society through the humanities?

Universal Person

Who was the first Spanish king to assert authority in the 15th century during the Italian Wars?

Ferdinand of Aragon

Who was the king of France who was invited to Italy by the Sforza family?

Charles VIII

Who was the king of France who lost the Italian Wars in 1527 to the Habsburgs?

Francis I

Which social class represented 97% of the population?

Third Estate

Who was the ruler of Milan who invited Charles VIII into Italy in hopes of extending his power?

Ludovico Sforza

Who was the "First Lady of the World"?

Isabella d'Este

Which social class included the nobility?

Second Estate

The inclusion of this led to the inclusion of "humanistic values" to prevent choas.


Why did Italy never form a nation-state?

They had great prosperity economically during the Commercial Revolution.

Who was the "patriarch" of the ruling family of Florence that held power throughout the 15th century?

Cosimo d'Medici

What did Feltre do?

He established a humanist school in Mantua.

Who was a High Renaissance architect who worked on the dome of St. Peter's Basilica as well as the Tempietto?


What German artist introduced Italian styles of painting in his self-portrait, as well as his wood cuts such as "The Adoration"?


Who was the "Father of Humanism"? He studied classical Greek and Latin as well as introduced the concept of emotion in his "Sonnets to Laura"


Who was the Flemish painter who mastered the art of oil paint in his Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride?

Van Eyck

His patron, the Medici family, encouraged his study and establishment of modern Neo-Platonism and Hermeticism.


Who was the "Father of Modern History"? He wrote the History of Florence and the History of Italy and identified patterns.


His Primavera and Birth of Venus illustrates his work prior to his religious conversion.


His moveable type printing press was the gateway for merchants to secularize society by gaining control of European media.


His School of Athens is an excellent example of Classical painting of the High Renaissance. He foreshadows the Late Renaissance by use of exaggeration and pudginess in his Madonna series.


His The Prince may have given future rulers a realistic guide at establishing their will : "Do good when possible; do evil when necessary"


What Flemish painter brought a sense of worth to peasantry in his paintings such as Children at Play and The Beggers?


His book New Cicero identified "Classical Latin" as well as the foundations of civic humanism.


He was the "Divine One" who mastered the High Renaissance sculpture with works such as La Pieta and David.


Even though his Mona Lisa and The Last Supper are perfect examples of High Renaissance art, his true genius was identified in his studies of engineering and anatomy.

da Vinci

During the High Renaissance, what was about being greater than life?


What type of Architecture was meant to bring a sense of awe?


What were 3 characteristics of classical architecture?

Simplicity, Elegance, Balance

What Early Renaissance architect completed the Church at San Lorenzo and the dome in the Cathedral of Florence?


What Early Renaissance architect visited Rome to study the ancient ruins?


In the Early Renaissance what family was a patron of the arts?


In the High Renaissance, who paid for most art/architecture?

The Pope

Who was Donatello?

Father of Renaissance Sculpture

Who was the Father of Renaissance painting?


Who did the story of Genesis on the Sistine Chapel?


Who was a court painter to Louis XIII of France?

Da Vinci

Who was Michelangelo's student?


What piece of artwork is the best example of linear perspective?

The School of Athens

Who painted The Birth of Venus?


The Italian Renaissance glorified what?

The Medieval Catholic Church

Why was the purpose of religious painting/sculpture?

Creators glorified Catholicism not because of pious honor, but fear of damnation over sin of pride.

What 4 things caused the Renaissance to diffuse to the North?

1) Warfare- northern conquests of Italy 2) Increased Trade 3) Northern Merchants sent children to schools in Italy 4) Guttenberg's Printing Press

How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?

The Northern Renaissance emphasized critical thinking within society and religion. Also, Christian Humanism was developed.

Who was a Dutch humanist of the Netherlands who wrote Praise of Folly?


Who was the Prince of Humanists?


What 16th century book written by Erasmus made fun of the church and the Pope?

Praise of Folly

Who was an English writer and civic humanist?

Thomas More

Who wrote the book Utopia?

Thomas More

In 1535 who was executed by Henry VIII?

Thomas More

Who is best known for his portraits of Erasmus and Thomas More?


What did mannerism portray?

The chaos of the age.

What was the artistic movement of the Late Renaissance?


What form of art threw out simplicity, balance, and elegance?


What is Titian known for?

"Baptism of Christ"

What painter trained in Italy but worked in Spain?

El Greco

Who is known for his works "Toledo" and "Christ Driving the Traders from the Temple"?

El Greco

Who was a French humanist that authored Gargantua and hoped to establish a Utopian society?

Francois Rabelias

What story was about giants and was used to make fun of monasterits?


What years did the Italian Renaissance occur?


What did the Northern Renaissance criticize?


What were the 3 phases of the Italian Renaissance?

1) Early- Florence 2) High- Papal States 3)Late-Spain

What was the positive political impact of the Hundred Years' War on France?

France became a nation-state

Charles VIII of France used what to allow him to form a royal army?


When did England lose half of its land?

Hundred Years' War

In the 1450s England broke out into a civil war called the War of the Roses. Who gained victory over the York Family?

Henry Tudor

What was the last battle of the War of the Roses?

Battle of Bossworth Field

Henry VII ended livery and maintenance and established what?

Court of the Star Chamber

What English king was nicknamed the "Burgher King"?

Henry VIII

What English king was able to work with merchants allowing England to prosper?

Henry VIII

What were the two Spanish Christian Kingdoms that gained momentum in the Late Middle Ages?

Castile and Aragon

By the 15th century, who had the strongest infantry?


What was the Reconquista?

Ferdinand and Isabelle's crusade against Granada

In 1492 Ferdinand and Isabelle began what?

The Inquistion

What was the Inquistion?

Attempt to convert Jews and Muslims to Catholicism

What was a major problem of the Holy Roman Empire?

They never developed a strong monarchial authority

Maximilian I was in constant conflict with which imperial diet?

Reichstag (Germany)

How did Polish nobles gain dominance?

Librium Veto

Russia was under the dominance of what?


In the year 1453, the Ottoman Empire ended the Byzantine Empire by capturing what city?


In the 1500s which HRE emperor threatened Western Europe?

Charles V

Why was centralization in Eastern Europe states nearly impossible?

There were no defensive borders and there was constant warfare.

During the 15th century which English group called for Church Reforms?


Lallords were influenced by whos writings?


What caused the Great Schism to come to and end?

Council of Constance

Pius II issued what papal bull?


Pope Sixtus IV was known for using what?


Pope Alexander VI of the Borgia family encouraged his son Cesare to do what?

Carve an Italian state

Who was nicknamed the "warrior-pope"?

Pope Julius II

Which Pope was known as a patron of the arts?

Leo X

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