CEE 582

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Which of the following statements is true?
A) Populations are assemblages of habitats
B) Populations are assemblages of microbial communities
C) Microbial communities area assemblages of populations.
D) Habitats are assemblages of microbial communities
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Terms in this set (59)
What macromolecule is generated when in an anaerobic zone phosphorous accumulating organisms store energy? A) Acetate B) Polyhydroxyalkanoate C) Glycogen D) PolyphosphateBWhat mechanism is less energy intensive? A) ABC transportation B) Group translocation C) Diffusion D) Simple TransportCWhat structure will peniciliin target?Peptidoglycanwhere is the energy needed for simple transport coming from?Proton motive forceWhich part of the cell envelope is human toxicity linked to?the lipopolysacharide layer (LPS)What is the role of capsule and slime layers?to assist in attachment to surfaces; maintenance of biofilms, and to contribute to infectivityWhat is sensing the concentration of an attractant or a repellent?chemoreceptorsGive a simple explanation on how biological phosphorous removal work using glycogen, PHA, and polyphosphatesTBAwhat triggers endospores formation?limitation of nutrientsWhy would it be impossible for gram-positive bacteria to store sulfur as gram-negative sulfur-oxidizing chemolithotrophs can?because the elemental sulfur is oxidized to sulfate, which is stored in the periplasm. This would be impossible in gram-positive bacteria because they do not possess a periplasm.The sum total of all the biosynthetic reactions in a cell is known asmetabolismchemoorganotrophs use which energy sourceorganic compoundsIf the free energy (delta G) is positivethe reaction is endergonic and requires the input of energyH2S+4 H2O + 8 Fe3+ -----> 8 Fe2+ + 10H+ + SO4 2-S is oxidized and Fe is reducedActivation energy is the energyrequired to break the chemical bonds of the reactantsThe most important high-energy phosphate compound in living organisms isATPA catalystchanges the rate of the reaction but does not change the end amount of productsIn aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor isoxygenMechanisms for energy conservation in chemoorganotrophs1. Glycolysis 2. Krebs cycle 3. electron transport 4. photophorilation 5. respiration 6. fermentationthe functional unit of genetic information is called thegenehousekeeping genes are part ofthe chromosomethe precursor of each new nucleotide in a strand of DNA is adeoxyribonucleoside 5'-triphosphateDNA replication always proceeds from the _______ of the incoming nucleotide to the ______ of the previously added nucleotide5'-phosphate/ 3'-hydroxylPromoters are specific sequences of ______ that are recognized by _____.DNA / sigma factortRNA is released from the ribosome at theE sitein all cells genes are composed ofDNAIn all cells, a gene is a segment of DNA that specifiesrRNA, protein, tRNATrue or False: Most prokaryotes and eukaryotes are distinguishable because prokaryotes have circular chromosomes and eukaryotes have linear chromosomesTrueTrue or False: DNA replication is bidirectional in prokaryotes with circular chromosomesTrueThe time interval required for the formation of two cells from one is called thegeneration timeCell density in a chemostat is controlled bythe concentration of the limiting nutrienta chemical that denatures proteins is most likely to be classified as a _____ agent.bacteriocidalthe ratio of the vapor pressure of the air in equilibrium with a substance to the vapor pressure of pure water is known aswater activitywhich of the following forms of oxygen is/are generally toxic to living organisms?superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals are all toxicBY controlling the concentration of nutrients continuously added to a chemostat, cells can constantly be maintained at theexponential growth phaseA medium containing known substances in precise amounts is known as a ________ media.definedTrue or False: A bacterium whose optimal growth temperature is 35 C would be classified as a thermophileFalseSubstances added to a culture to keep the pH constant are known asbuffer solutionorganisms with a specific requirement for salt are known ashalophilesan open reading frame encodes forpolypeptidetranscriptome analysis is useful in relation to genome analysis becauseit analyzes RNA, thus it reveals which genes are expressed under different conditionsThe entire complement of RNA produced under a given set of conditions is called atranscriptomethe very first DNA sequencing technology called the Sanger method relies onthe incorporation of dideoxynucleotides that terminate chain extension during DNA synthesisthe total genetic complement of all cells within a microbial community is called ametagenomethe science that applies powerful computational tools to DNA and protein sequences for the purpose of analyzing, storing, and accessing the sequences for comparative purposes is known asbioinformaticsGenome assembly relies onoverlap of a large number of short sequenceshorizontal gene transferis common and may sometime occur between unrelated organismswhat is the difference between PCR and RT-PCRRT-PCR uses an RNA template whereas PCR uses a DNA templateAt which time period during PCR thermocycling is/are hottest in temperatureduring DNA denaturation