Cranial Surface Bones
1. Occipital Bone (1)
2. Parietal Bones (2)
3. Temporal Bones (2)
4. Frontal Bone (1)
1. Forms the Back and Base of Skull
2. Is the Cradle for the Brain
3. Articulates with the Atlas (C1), the Parietal and Temporal Bones.
4. The opening is the Foramen Magnum
Major Parts of Occipital Bone
1. Foramen Magnum
2. Eminences which articulate with Atlas
3. External Occipital Protuberance (EOP)
4. Superior Nuchal Line
External Occipital Protuberance
1. AKA - E.O.P
2/ Located at the base of Skull
3. Lies Midway between the Foramen Magnum and Summit of Occipital Bone
Superior Nuchal Line
1. Extendes Laterally from both sides of the E.O.P.
2. Is the Origin of the Occipitofrontalis Muscle
1. Make up the Superior of the Sides and Back of the Cranium
2. 2/3 of the Roof of the Skull
3. Articulates with the Temporal, Occipital and Frontal Bones
4. Go in TWO directions; VERTICAL at SIDES, HORIZONTAL at TOP
The place where the Parietal Bones change direction from Vertical on Sides to Horizontal at the top
1. Smooth, Convex Portion of Temporal Bones.
2. Extends Medial and Deep behind the Zygomatic Arch
3. Considered the Vertical Portion of the Temporal Bones
4. The Anterior and Superior Portion of the Temporal Bones
The greatest Depth of the ________________ is located Posterior to the Lateral Rim of the Eye Socket
1. Formed by the Zygomaatic Process of the Temporal Bone and the Temporal Process of the Zygomatic Bone
2. The bony structure that Cuts the Lenght of the Ear in Half
1. Conical Projetion of Temporal Bone
2. Lies Posterior and Inferior to the Mandibular Fossa
3. Serves as Point of Attachment for the SCM
External Auditory Meatus
1. Ear Passage (Canal)
2. The most accurate location of the ear
3. Protected by a small flap of skin called the Tragus
1. Forms the Forehead and Anterior Portion of the Roof of the Skull
2. At Infancy, is in two parts(R and L). Sutures disappear after a few years
3. Surface is Convex. Goes in Two Directions
4. Five Prominences
1. Horizontal Portion of Frontal Bone.
2. Ascends Superiorly until it articulates with the Parietal Bones
1. Two Prominences on the Upper Part of the Forehead
2. Can Vary in Size.
3. May be Asymmetrical and may be Continuous
4. Normal Hairline is just above the ____________, on the Crown
5.Shading between the __________ on Men with Red will bring out shadow and shape to make them more prominent
1. A smooth elevation which lies Between the Supercillary Arches.
2. Located immediately Above the Root of Nose
3. The Lateral Margins form a part of the Orbital Cavity
4. Margins converge Medially to meet the Nasal Bone
1. There are two on the Upper Rim of the Eye Sockets
2. Lie Inferior to the Supercillary Arches
3. Medial Portion of Eye Socket is Rounded and the Lateral is Sharp (Almond Shaped)
4. Distance between each Apex of the Eye Sockets is used to determine the MEDIAL PLANE OF FACE IN RESTORATION.
Line of Temple
1. Slightly Raised Curving Ridge on the surface of the Frontal Bone
2. Marks the End of the Forehead and the Start of the Temporal Region
3. Is continuous with the Lateral Line of the Eye Socket
4. Anterior Region of the Temporal Cavity is created by the _____________ and the Lateral Line of the Eye Socket.
1. Create the bony prominence of the Cheek and the Major Portions of the of the Inferior and Lateral Margins of the Eye Orbits.
2. Are Diamond Shaped and have Two Directions (Anterior and Posterior)
3. Change in direction occurs at Center of Bones
Major Parts of Zygomatic Bones
1. Zygomaticofrontal Process
2. Temporal Process
3. Maxillary Process
1. Lie Inferiorly to the Glabella
2. Articulate with Each Other
3. Create the Dome over the Superior Part of the Nasal Cavity
4. Along the Width of the Nasal Cavity, the _________ are indicators of the general dimensions and mass of the Nose
1. There are Two
2. Orifice bounded by the margins of the body of the Nasal Bones and the Maxilla
3. Are Irregualr in Shape (PEAR)
4. Extend from the Base of the Cranial Vault to the Roof of the Mouth. SEPARATED BY A SEPTUM
5. Asymmetrical, so Nose usually bends to the left. AIR PASSAGES ARE UNEQUAL
Ramus of Mandible
1. Vertical Portion of Mandible
2. Wide, flat and Quadrangular
3. Posterior Border is Thicker, Smmoth and Rounded
4. Anterior Border is Thin, but Thickens as is goes downward
5. Meets the Body at the Angle
Condyle of Mandible
1. Posterior Process at the top of the Ramus
2. Rests in the Mandibular Fossa of the Temporal Bone
Alveolar Processes of Mandible
1. Holds same 16 teeths as the maxilla
2. Are slightly inferior to those of the maxilla
1. The Chin
2. Closed by a symphisis
3. Triangular and is slightly concave at the Base
4. At each end is a Prominent Tubercle (nodule / eminence) which influence the form of the inferior border of chin and jaw
Angle of Mandible
1. Where the Body and Ramus meet.
2. Responsible for the Form / Shape of the lower 1/2 of head
1. Two bones that appear as one and articulate at the medial line below the Nasal Cavity.
2. Pryamidal in form and each bone has a Sinus
Frontal Process of Maxilla
1. Extend superiorly and anteriorly beside a nasal bone to articulate with Frontal Bone.
2. Make the MEDIAL margin of EYE SOCKET
Nasal Spine of Maxilla
1. Located where the two bones join at the inferior margin of the Nasal Cavity and creates a Small, Sharp Spur.
2. Creats the Bony Anatomical Limit of the Nose
Zygomatic Process of Maxilla
Small, elevated, roughly Triangular Structure which juts forward to join the more prominent surface of the Zygomatic Bone
Alveolar Process of Maxilla
1. Contains 16 sockets for Upper Teeth
2. Is slightly anterior to the lower teeth
Palatine Process of Maxilla
Forms the greater portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity
1. AKA - Superior. IS MOST ANTERIOR
2. Made up of the Frontal Bone
3. Upper Rim of Eye Socket that projects Anteriorly further than any other Rim.
4. Eyebrow sits along the margin.
5. Part lies on Anterior and Part lies on Lateral Plane
Lateral Margin of Eye Orbit
1. Formed by extensions of the Frontal and Zygomatic Bones (Zygomaticofrontal Process)
2. Lies on Side of the Head
3. Anterior Edge Dips Concavely between Forehead & Cheek
4. Edge of Lateral Rim is Posterior to Medial Rim; Due to Bilateral Curvature of the Face
Inferior Margin of Eye Orbit
1. IS MOST POSTERIOR
2 Lower Margin of Eye Socket created by Cheekbone(Zygomatic) and Upper Jaw (Maxilla)
3 On Direct View; It is slightly concave and the Medial End is Superior to the Lateral.
4 In Profile or Bilateral View: Surface simulates an "S" curve
Medial Margin of Eye Orbit
1. IS SECOND MOST ANTERIOR
2.Formed by the Frontal Process of Maxilla and Ascends Superiorly to join the Frontal and Nasal Bones
Starts at Each Canine Tooth and extends Posteriorly and Laterally, including the first Molar