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Cranial Surface Bones

1. Occipital Bone (1)
2. Parietal Bones (2)
3. Temporal Bones (2)
4. Frontal Bone (1)

Occipital Bone

1. Forms the Back and Base of Skull
2. Is the Cradle for the Brain
3. Articulates with the Atlas (C1), the Parietal and Temporal Bones.
4. The opening is the Foramen Magnum

Major Parts of Occipital Bone

1. Foramen Magnum
2. Eminences which articulate with Atlas
3. External Occipital Protuberance (EOP)
4. Superior Nuchal Line

External Occipital Protuberance

1. AKA - E.O.P
2/ Located at the base of Skull
3. Lies Midway between the Foramen Magnum and Summit of Occipital Bone

Superior Nuchal Line

1. Extendes Laterally from both sides of the E.O.P.
2. Is the Origin of the Occipitofrontalis Muscle

Parietal Bones

1. Make up the Superior of the Sides and Back of the Cranium
2. 2/3 of the Roof of the Skull
3. Articulates with the Temporal, Occipital and Frontal Bones
4. Go in TWO directions; VERTICAL at SIDES, HORIZONTAL at TOP

Parietal Eminences

The place where the Parietal Bones change direction from Vertical on Sides to Horizontal at the top

Widest Portion of the Skull

The Distance between the Two Parietal Eminences

Temporal Bones



1. Smooth, Convex Portion of Temporal Bones.
2. Extends Medial and Deep behind the Zygomatic Arch
3. Considered the Vertical Portion of the Temporal Bones
4. The Anterior and Superior Portion of the Temporal Bones

Temporal Cavity

The greatest Depth of the ________________ is located Posterior to the Lateral Rim of the Eye Socket

Zygomatic Arch

1. Formed by the Zygomaatic Process of the Temporal Bone and the Temporal Process of the Zygomatic Bone
2. The bony structure that Cuts the Lenght of the Ear in Half

Mandibular Fossa

Depression in Temporal Bone that Articulates with The Mandibular Condyle

Mastoid Process

1. Conical Projetion of Temporal Bone
2. Lies Posterior and Inferior to the Mandibular Fossa
3. Serves as Point of Attachment for the SCM

External Auditory Meatus

1. Ear Passage (Canal)
2. The most accurate location of the ear
3. Protected by a small flap of skin called the Tragus


Small Flap of Skin which protects the External Auditory Meatus

Widest Part of Face

Measured from One Zygomatic Arch to the Other

Frontal Bone

1. Forms the Forehead and Anterior Portion of the Roof of the Skull
2. At Infancy, is in two parts(R and L). Sutures disappear after a few years
3. Surface is Convex. Goes in Two Directions
4. Five Prominences


1. Horizontal Portion of Frontal Bone.
2. Ascends Superiorly until it articulates with the Parietal Bones


1. Vertical Portion of Frontal Bone.
2. Extends from Eye Sockets to the Fontal Eminences

Frontal Eminences

1. Two Prominences on the Upper Part of the Forehead
2. Can Vary in Size.
3. May be Asymmetrical and may be Continuous
4. Normal Hairline is just above the ____________, on the Crown
5.Shading between the __________ on Men with Red will bring out shadow and shape to make them more prominent

Supercillary Arches

1. There are two, located above the Eyebrow Arches


1. A smooth elevation which lies Between the Supercillary Arches.
2. Located immediately Above the Root of Nose
3. The Lateral Margins form a part of the Orbital Cavity
4. Margins converge Medially to meet the Nasal Bone

Supraorbital Margins

1. There are two on the Upper Rim of the Eye Sockets
2. Lie Inferior to the Supercillary Arches
3. Medial Portion of Eye Socket is Rounded and the Lateral is Sharp (Almond Shaped)
4. Distance between each Apex of the Eye Sockets is used to determine the MEDIAL PLANE OF FACE IN RESTORATION.

Line of Temple

1. Slightly Raised Curving Ridge on the surface of the Frontal Bone
2. Marks the End of the Forehead and the Start of the Temporal Region
3. Is continuous with the Lateral Line of the Eye Socket
4. Anterior Region of the Temporal Cavity is created by the _____________ and the Lateral Line of the Eye Socket.

Zygomatic Bones

1. Create the bony prominence of the Cheek and the Major Portions of the of the Inferior and Lateral Margins of the Eye Orbits.
2. Are Diamond Shaped and have Two Directions (Anterior and Posterior)
3. Change in direction occurs at Center of Bones

Widest Part of Central Plane

Center of One Zygomataic Bone to the Center of the Other

Major Parts of Zygomatic Bones

1. Zygomaticofrontal Process
2. Temporal Process
3. Maxillary Process

Nasal Bones

1. Lie Inferiorly to the Glabella
2. Articulate with Each Other
3. Create the Dome over the Superior Part of the Nasal Cavity
4. Along the Width of the Nasal Cavity, the _________ are indicators of the general dimensions and mass of the Nose

Bones of the Nose

1. Perpendicular Plate of Ethmoid Bone
2. Vomer Bone
3. Nasal Bones

Nasal Cavity

1. There are Two
2. Orifice bounded by the margins of the body of the Nasal Bones and the Maxilla
3. Are Irregualr in Shape (PEAR)
4. Extend from the Base of the Cranial Vault to the Roof of the Mouth. SEPARATED BY A SEPTUM
5. Asymmetrical, so Nose usually bends to the left. AIR PASSAGES ARE UNEQUAL


1. Jawbone, Only bone of head that isnt sutured to the others

Body of Mandible

1. Horizontal Portion of Mandible
2. Contains the Alveolar Processes

Ramus of Mandible

1. Vertical Portion of Mandible
2. Wide, flat and Quadrangular
3. Posterior Border is Thicker, Smmoth and Rounded
4. Anterior Border is Thin, but Thickens as is goes downward
5. Meets the Body at the Angle

Coronoid Process of Mandible

Anterior Process at the top of the Ramus

Condyle of Mandible

1. Posterior Process at the top of the Ramus
2. Rests in the Mandibular Fossa of the Temporal Bone

Alveolar Processes of Mandible

1. Holds same 16 teeths as the maxilla
2. Are slightly inferior to those of the maxilla

Mental Eminence

1. The Chin
2. Closed by a symphisis
3. Triangular and is slightly concave at the Base
4. At each end is a Prominent Tubercle (nodule / eminence) which influence the form of the inferior border of chin and jaw

Incisive fossa

Depression between Mental Eminence and Incisive teeth

Angle of Mandible

1. Where the Body and Ramus meet.
2. Responsible for the Form / Shape of the lower 1/2 of head


Angle of Mandible at Birth


Angle of Mandible at 4 years and Old Age

110 - 120

Angle of Adult Mandible


1. Two bones that appear as one and articulate at the medial line below the Nasal Cavity.
2. Pryamidal in form and each bone has a Sinus

Frontal Process of Maxilla

1. Extend superiorly and anteriorly beside a nasal bone to articulate with Frontal Bone.
2. Make the MEDIAL margin of EYE SOCKET

Nasal Spine of Maxilla

1. Located where the two bones join at the inferior margin of the Nasal Cavity and creates a Small, Sharp Spur.
2. Creats the Bony Anatomical Limit of the Nose

Zygomatic Process of Maxilla

Small, elevated, roughly Triangular Structure which juts forward to join the more prominent surface of the Zygomatic Bone

Alveolar Process of Maxilla

1. Contains 16 sockets for Upper Teeth
2. Is slightly anterior to the lower teeth

Alveolar Arch

Formed by the Alveolar Process and the Teeth it contains

Palatine Process of Maxilla

Forms the greater portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity

Supraorbital Margin

2. Made up of the Frontal Bone
3. Upper Rim of Eye Socket that projects Anteriorly further than any other Rim.
4. Eyebrow sits along the margin.
5. Part lies on Anterior and Part lies on Lateral Plane

Lateral Margin of Eye Orbit

1. Formed by extensions of the Frontal and Zygomatic Bones (Zygomaticofrontal Process)
2. Lies on Side of the Head
3. Anterior Edge Dips Concavely between Forehead & Cheek
4. Edge of Lateral Rim is Posterior to Medial Rim; Due to Bilateral Curvature of the Face

Inferior Margin of Eye Orbit

2 Lower Margin of Eye Socket created by Cheekbone(Zygomatic) and Upper Jaw (Maxilla)
3 On Direct View; It is slightly concave and the Medial End is Superior to the Lateral.
4 In Profile or Bilateral View: Surface simulates an "S" curve

Medial Margin of Eye Orbit

2.Formed by the Frontal Process of Maxilla and Ascends Superiorly to join the Frontal and Nasal Bones


1.Projection of the Jaw beyond the Upper Part of the Face
2. 5 types of concern

Dental Prognathism

An Oblique Insertion of Teeth

Alveolar Prognathism

Lips move forward while the Chin Recedes

Maxillary Prognathism

Maxilla juts out beyond the Upper Part of the Face

Mandibular Prognathism

Mandible just out beyone the Upper Part of the Face

Infranasal Prognathism

The Shaft of the Nose Inclines Forward at an Angle Greater than Normal


# of teeth in Normal Mouth


# of Incisors
Most Anterior


# of Canines
2nd Most Anterior


# of Premolars
2nd Most Posterior


# of Molars
Most Posterior

Central Plane

Covers the 4 Incisors (Top & Bottom)

Lateral Plane

Starts at Each Canine Tooth and extends Posteriorly and Laterally, including the first Molar

Upper Integumentary Lip

Part of Face that Exhibits a Horseshoe Curvature (1)


Part of Face that Exhibits a Horseshoe Curvature (2)


Part of Face that Exhibits a Horseshoe Curvature (3)

Lower Jaw

Part of Face that Exhibits a Horseshoe Curvature (4)

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