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An organized unit that can survive and reproduce by itself, using energy, necessary raw materials and DNA instructions


A state of overall internal chemical and physical stability that is required for survival of cells and the body as a whole

Characteristics of Life

1. Living things take in and use energy and materials
2. Living things sense and respond to changes in the enviornment
3. Living things consist of one or more cells
4. Living things maintain homeostasis
5. Living things reproduce and grow


Distinct group of mammals that includes humans, apes, and their close relatives


An animal that has a backbone


All parts of the Earth's waters, crust, and atomosphere in which organisms live


The smallest unit of matter that is unique to a particular element


Unit of matter in which chemical bonding holds together two or more atoms of the same or different elements


Group of cells and intercellular substances that function together in one or more specialized tasks


Body structure of definite form and functions that is composed of more than one tissue

Organ systems

Two or more organs that interact chically, physically, or both in performing a common task


a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently


A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area


The population of all species occupying a habbit; also applied to groups of organisms with similar lifestyles in a habit


An array of organisms and their physical environment, all of which interact through a flow of energy and a cycling of materials

Scientific Method

Any systematic ways of obtaining information about the natural world

Scientific Method Steps

1.Observe some aspect of nature
2. Ask a question about the observation or identify a problem to explore
3. Develope a hypothesis
4. Make a prediction
5. Test prediction
6. Repeat the tests or develop new ones
7. Analyze and report the test results and conclusions

Control Group

A group that differs from the experimental group only with respect to the variable being studied


A test in which some phenomenon in the natural world is manipulated in controlled ways to gain insight into its function, structure, operation, or behavior


A possible explanation of a specific phenomenon

Sampling Error

Error that develops when an experimenter uses a sample of a population for an experimental group that is not large enough to be representative of the whole


The only factor that is not the same in the experimental group as it is in the control group

Critical Thinking

Objective evaluation of information


Verifiable information, not opinion or speculation


A subjective judgment

Scientific Theory

A systematic tested explantion of a broad range of natural events and observations


A substance that kills or inhibts the growth of microogranisms

Emerging Diseases

Diseases caused by a new strain of an existing pathogen or one that is now explotting an increased availability of human hosts

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