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101 terms

micro lecture chpt 4 part 2

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periplasmic space
Between outer membrane and cell membrane
negative
The periplasmic space is a zone between the plasma membrane and the outer membrane of the cell wall of gram ____ bacteria.
periplasm, digestive
Periplasmic Space:
-Contains peptidoglycan and ____
-Contains water, nutrients, and substances secreted by the cell, such as _____ enzymes and proteins involved in transport
phospholipid bilayer
Prokaryotic Cell Membranes:
-Referred to as ____ ____; composed of lipids and associated proteins
half
Prokaryotic Cell Membranes: :
-Approximately ____ the membrane is composed of proteins that act as recognition proteins, enzymes, receptors, carriers, or channels
integral
Prokaryotic Cell Membranes: PROTEIN
-A protein molecule (or assembly of proteins) that is permanently attached or firmly anchored in the plasma membrane via its hydrophobic domains interacting with the membrane phospholipids.
peripheral
Prokaryotic Cell Membranes: PROTEIN
-A protein that temporarily adheres to the biological membrane, either to the lipid bilayer or to integral proteins by a combination of hydrophobic, electrostatic, and other non-covalent interactions.
glycoprotein
Prokaryotic Cell Membranes: PROTEIN
-Proteins with covalently attached sugar units, either bonded via the OH group of serine or threonine O glycosylated) or through the amide NH2 of asparagine (N glycosylated)
fluid mosaic model
describes current understanding of membrane structure
hydrophobic
Fluid Mosaic Model:

-The plasma membrane is described to be fluid because of its _____ integral components such as lipids and membrane proteins that move laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane is not solid, but more like a 'fluid'.
macromolecules
Fluid Mosaic Model:
-The membrane is depicted as mosaic because like a mosaic that is made up of many different parts the plasma membrane is composed of different kinds of ______ , such as integral proteins, peripheral proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, glycolipids, and in some cases cholesterol, lipoproteins.
polar
Water is a ____ molecule.
dissolve
Many biologically important molecules are POLAR and can ______ in water.
70,90
Microbial cells are ___ to ____% water
lipids
____ are non-polar molecules.
selectively permeable
Plasma Membrane Function is to be _____ _____ and for breakdown of nutrients and energy production.
selectively permeability
Selective barrier for materials to enter/exit cell
size, solubility, transporter molecules
Permeability depends on what three things?
disinfectants, antibiotics
Anticrobials Targeting Plasma Membrane include which two main groups?
alcohols, detergents, sanitizers
Anticrobials Targeting Plasma Membrane:
-DISINFECTANTS
* _____
* _____
* Quaternary ammonium compounds
* Acid-anionic _______
polymyxins
Anticrobials Targeting Plasma Membrane:
- ANTIBIOTICS
* include __________ which is in Neosporin.
phospholipids
Antimicrobials targeting the plasma membrane will disrupt ______.
concentration gradient
Difference in concentration on two sides of a membrane
greater, lesser
Concentration Gradient; substances naturally move from ____ to _____concentration
passive, active
What are the two major types of concentration gradients?
passive
Type of concentration gradient:
-moves from high to low conc; no energy/ATP required
active
Type of concentration gradient:
-moves from low to high conc; energy required
simple , facilitated, osmosis
Name the three passive processes.
simple diffusion
PASSIVE PROCESS
-Net movement of molecules from high to low concentration
- Stops at equilibrium
facilitated diffusion
PASSIVE PROCESS
-Transport of substances across a biological membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. Since the substances move along the direction of their concentration gradients, energy is not required
osmosis
PASSIVE PROCESS
-Net movement of solvent (usually H2O) across selectively permeable membrane
-Movement follows the Concentration gradient for solvent
osmotic pressure
Pressure required to prevent the movement of water into a solution containing some solutes
-Stops the flow
isotonic
SOLUTIONS:
No net movement of water
hypotonic
SOLUTIONS:
Water moves into the cell.Could cause lysis
hypertonic
SOLUTIONS:
Water moves out of the cell, causing plasmolysis.
protein, outside, inside
Active Transport
-Requires specific carrier ____
-Usually from ____ to ____ cell
-May occur AGAINST cell gradient
prokaryotes, altered
Group Translocation
-Active process
-Only in ____
-Substance is ____ during transport
cytoplasm
Substance of cell within plasma membrane
water
CYTOPLASM:
- 80% ____
Also contains proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic ions
nuclear area, ribosomes, inclusions
CYTOPLASM STRUCTURES:
-Name the 3 main
nucleoid
Nuclear area on prokaryotes AKA
one, membrane
NUCLEAR AREA/NUCLEOID:
-______ bacterial chromosome
-Circular dsDNA
-Essential info
-No _____ surrounding
independent, nonessential
PLASMIDS:
-Small circular dsDNA molecules
-5-100 genes/plasmid
-____ of chromosome (location, replication)
- relatively _____ info
-Antibiotic resistance, toxin tolerance, special enzymes
-Tool in biotechnology
structurally
Ribosomes:
-Prokaryotic _____ different from Eukaryotic ribosomes
70S
rna, protein
Ribosomes:
Small round particles in a cell made up of ___ and ___ that are primarily involved in the assembly of proteins by translating messenger RNA (a process called translation).
antimicrobials
Ribosomes:
-Specific target of ______
*Interfere with bacterial protein synthesis
id, lipids
Inclusions:
-Can be used to aid in ______
-Metachromatic granules, polysaccharides, ______, sulfur carboxysomes, gas, magnetosomes
inclusions
Material held inside a cell, often consisting of reserve deposits.
inclusions
Geese using the earth's magnetic field during migration is an example of what cellular structures?
endospore
Specialized "resting" formed inside some bacteria.
Clostridium and Bacillus
Gram+ bacteria forming endospores include which two?
coxiella
Gram - bacteria forming endospores include which one? (the exception)
nutrient
Formation of endospores triggered by _____ deficiency:
-Carbon, nitrogen, etc
spore coat
An endospore is a highly durable dehydrated cell with _____ ____.
adverse, millions
An Endospore:
-More resistant to _____ conditions
*Extreme heat, dehydration, chemicals, radiation
-Can survive ____ of years
no
Is an endospore a reproductive type of formation?
one
How many endospores can a bacteria make in their lifetime?
diagnostic
Endospores:
-Locations with in cell are ______.
germination
Endospore; return to vegetative state.
physical, chemical
Endospore germination is trigger by _____ or ____ damage.
processing, freezing
Endospores carry an importance to the food and medical industry for the following reason:
-Resistance to killing
* Which allows for food ____, heating, ____, dessication, chemicals, radiation, etc.
flagella, cilia
What are the two motility structures on Eukaryotes?
flagella
Eukaryote motility:
-Few, long in relation to cell; whip like
cilia
Eukaryote motility:
- numerous, short; hair like
slightly
Motility structures on eukaryotes ____ different than prokaryotes.
peptidoglycan, simple
Cell wall:
-Most Euk have cell wall, with no ______.
-more ____ than prokaryotes
chitin, cellulose, polysaccharides
Cell wall:
-Fungi, invertebrates: ____
-Plants & algae: ____
-Yeast: _____
no
Cell Wall:
-Protozoans/animal cells: _____ cell wall
*Pellicle
*Glycocalyx
pellicle, glycocalyx
Instead of having cell wall, protozoans and animal cells have which two things?
similar, proteins
Eukaryotic Plasma Membrane:
-Very _____ to Prokaryotes
- Different ____
cell, bacterial
Eukaryotic Plasma Membrane:
-Carbohydrates
*Receptor sites, cell to __ recognition, ____ attachment sites
osmotic
Eukaryotic Plasma Membrane:
-Sterols
*Resistance against ____ pressure
sterol
Any steroid-based alcohol having a hydrocarbon (aliphatic) side-chain of 8-10 carbons at the 17-beta position and a hydroxyl group at the 3-beta position (therfore an alcohol).
cholesterol, ergosterols
Name 2 examples of sterols.
1) _______; buffer against temp. changes.
2) _______; present in fungi -- used in anti-fungal drugs.
group
Eukaryotic membrane transport:
-Simple & facilitated diffusion
-Osmosis
-Active transport
-No ___ transport
phagocytosis, pinocytosis
Eukaryotic membrane transport:
-Endocytosis includes what two kinds?
endocytosis
The process by which material is moved into a eukaryotic cell.
cytosol, cytoskeleton, motor proteins
Eukaryotic cytoplasm is composed of what 3 basic components?
cytosol
The fluid portion of cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
Micro filaments, intermediate filaments, and micro tubules that provide support and movement of eukaryotic cytoplasm.
cytoplasmic streaming
The movement of cytoplasm in a eukaryotic cell.
support, movement, transport
-Cytoskeleton
*Shape and ____
*Enables _____
*_____ of substances through cell
nutrients, move
-Cytoplasmic streaming
*movement of cytoplasm from one part of cell to another
*Distributes _____
*Helps to _____ cell
myosin
Name the example of motor proteins.
motor proteins
proteins that bind ATP and are able to move on a suitable substrate with concomitant ATP hydrolysis.
organelles
Membrane-bound structures with specific shapes and specialized functions with in eukaryotic cells.
nucleolus
A area in a eukaryotic nucleus where rRNA is synthesized.
nucleus
Which organelle?
- Controls cell activities
- Contains the hereditary material of the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
Which organelle?
- Carries materials through cell
- Aids in making proteins
golgi complex
Which organelle?
- Modify proteins made by the cells
- Package & export proteins
lysosomes
Which organelle?
- Breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules
- Digests old cell parts
vacuoles
Which organelle?
- Store food, water, metabolic & toxic wastes
- Store large amounts of food or sugars in plants
mitochondria
Which organelle?
- Breaks down sugar (glucose) molecules to release energy
- Site of aerobic cellular respiration
chloroplasts
Which organelle?
- Uses energy from sun to make food (glucose) for the plant
- Process called photosynthesis
- Release oxygen
double
MITOCHONDRIA
-Spherical/rod shaped

-____-membraned

-Site of cellular respiration
*Inner membrane
*"Powerhouse of the cell"
type, binary fission
MITOCHONDRIA
- Number per cell depends on cell ____

- Self-replicating
* via ____ _____

- Contain own DNA and ribosomes
circular DNA, 70S ribosomes
chloroplast
Membrane-enclosed structures containing
chlorophyll and photosynthetic enzymes
binary fission
CHLOROPLAST
- Self-replicating
* via ____ _____

- Contain own DNA and ribosomes
circular DNA, 70S ribosomes
endosymbiotic theory
Explains the origin of eukaryotes from prokaryotes
organelles
Endosymbiotic theory
-Similarities between eukaryotic ____ & prokaryotes
*Size/shape
*Circular DNA
*Organelle division independent of host
* 70S ribosomes
cell wall, mitochondria, chloroplasts
ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY
-Larger bacterial cell lost ___ ___ and engulfed a smaller bacteria
-Small bacteria became ____ and _____