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Mr. Devlin Biology Midterm
Terms in this set (77)
process of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful orderly way
A logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a specific question
(controlled) experiment in which only one variable is changed
variables - types
Independent variable - factor in a controlled experiment that is deliberately changed
Dependant variable - variable that is observed and that changes in response to the Independent variable
evidence; info gathered from observations
characteristics of living things
heredity, growth, DNA, stimulus, reproduce, homeostasis, cellular respiration, evolution
Basic unit of matter
positively charged particles
neutrally charged particles or particles that carry no charge
negatively charged particles located in the space surrounding the nucleus
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Many of the organic compounds in living cells are so large that they are known as macromolecules, which means "giant molecules"
carbohydrates - sugar and starch
1) made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
2) Many organisms store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates known as starches. The monomers in starch polymers are sugar molecules.
Function: Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants, some animals, and other organisms also use carbohydrates for structural purposes.
protein - amino acids
1) carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
2) needed for growth and repair
3) proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids, compounds with an amino group on one end and a carboxl group on the other end
Function: Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Others form important cellular structures, while still others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease.
lipids - fatty acids and glycerol
1) made up of carbon and hydrogen
2) many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids
Function: Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
nucleic acid - DNA and RNA
1) hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
Function: Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
polymers vs monomers
1) a monomer is a small chemical unit that makes up a polymer
2) molecule composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
Solutions - Solute and Solvent
1) solute is a substance that is dissolved. ex: water
2) solvent is the dissolving substance. ex: sugar
adhesion vs cohesion
1) Adhesion is the force of attraction between different kinds of molecules
2) Cohesion is the attraction between molecules of the same substance
pH - know where acids and bases fall on the pH scale
0 - 7 (acidic) 7-14 (base)
7 is pure water (neutral)
Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.
Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
1) Prokaryotic cells enclose their DNA in the nucleus.
2) Eukaryotes do not enclose their DNA in the nucleus.
basic unit of all forms of life
well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses, that enable scientists make accurate predictions about new situations.
Cell - Nucleus and Subparts
1) contains nearly all the cell's DNA and, with it, the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules.
2) Chromosomes carry the cell's genetic information
Cell - Cytoplasm
the portion of the cell outside the nucleus.
Cell - Cell Membrane
Functions - regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and supports the cell.
Structure - The lipid bilayer gives it a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings.
Role of Proteins - some of the proteins form channels and pumps that help to move material across
break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. They are also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness.
1) cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell
2) The site of protein synthesis
convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell.
1) internal membrane system found a eukaryotic cells
2) place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
Plant cells have what part that animal cells do not have?
Animal cells have what part that animal cells do not have?
The process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
This process, in which molecules that cannot directly diffuse across the membrane pass through special protein channels
the diffusion of WATER through a selectively permeable membrane.
solution with the greater concentration of solutes
solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
The movement of materials against a concentration difference and requires energy.
the process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane.
the membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell. The removal of water by means of a contractile vacuole is one example of this kind of active transport.
Plant and Animal Cell Diagram
Heterotrophs vs Autotrophs
Heterotrophs are organisms that obtain food by consuming other living things. An autotroph is an organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it produce its own food from inorganic compounds.
In Symbols: 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light = C6H12O6 + 6O2
In Words: Carbon dioxide + Water + Light =
Sugars + Oxygen
light absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the suns energy
Thylakoid Membrane ((chloroplast))
saclike membranes containing most of the machinery needed to carry out these reactions. contain clusters of chlorophyll and proteins known as photosystems.
fluid portion of the chloroplast outside of the thylakoids
Light dependent phase
1) occur in the thylakoids of chloroplasts.
2) use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
light independent reactions ((calvin cycle))
1) Takes place in the stroma
2) Carbon dioxide comes in and Sugar goes out
what factors affect photosynthesis?
temperature, light, and water
ATP vs ADP
ATP, a compound used by cells to store and release energy, consists of adenine, a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, and three phosphate groups. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a compound that looks almost like ATP, except that it has two phosphate groups instead of three.
Cellular Respiration Equation
In Symbols: 6O2 + C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
In Words: Oxygen + Glucose → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy
3 stages of cellular respiration
1) Glycolosis - occurs in the cytoplasm
2) Krebs Cycle - occurs in the mitochondria
3) ETC - occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria
Requirement and Product -
ATP produced during each stage -
Aerobic vs Anaerobic
Aerobic - process that requires oxygen
Anaerobic - process that does NOT require oxygen
Fermentation - Types
Alcoholic - Pyruvic acid + NADH → Alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
Lactic - Pyruvic acid + NADH → Lactic acid + NAD+
Fermentation - ATP produced
cells convert NADH to NAD+ by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid. This action allows glycolysis to produce a steady supply of ATP.
Fermentation - Where does it occur?
an anaerobic process that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells
Fermentation - Examples
Alcoholic - Alcohol and Bread
Lactic - Cheese, Yogurt, Buttermilk and Sour Cream
DNA Scientist - Franklin
The X-shaped pattern shows that the strands in DNA are twisted around each other like the coils of a spring, a shape known as a helix. The angle of the X suggests that there are two strands in the structure. Other clues suggest that the nitrogenous bases are near the center of the DNA molecule.
DNA Scientist - Watson and Crick
breakthrough model of DNA was a double helix, in which two strands of nucleotide sequences were wound around each other.
DNA Scientist - Avery
discovered genes were made of DNA
kind of virus that infects bacteria
Structure of DNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
The nucleotides in a strand of DNA are joined by covalent bonds formed between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next.
5 carbon sugar called a deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
DNA vs RNA
(1) the sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose, (2) RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded, and (3) RNA contains uracil in place of thymine.
type of RNA that copies coded instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes
codon vs anticodon
- group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein
- group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA
1) What is the process of transcription?
2) Where does it occur?
1) segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules.
2) In prokaryotes, it occurs in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotes, it occurs in the nucleus.
1) What is the process of translation?
2) Where does it occur?
1) Sequence of bases of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein.
How many possible 3 base codons are there in the genetic code?
long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
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