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117 terms

AP Human Geography

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fieldwork
The study of geography by visiting places and observing the people that live there and how they react with the changes there.
human geography
The study of humans and their cultures, activities, and landscapes
Globalization
The expansion of economics, political and cultural processes to the point that they beome global in scale and impact.
physical geography
The spatial analysis of the sturcture of the earth and its features; plants, animals, climate.....
spatial
having to do with space and earth's surface. Sometimes synonym for geographic.
spatial distribution
location of geographic phenomena across space.
pattern
the design of spatial distribution
medical geography
the study of health and diseases with geographic perspective.
pandemic
an outbreak of disease that spreads world-wide.
epidemic
regional outbreak of a disease
spatial perspective
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
five themes
location, human environment, region, place, movement
location
the geographical situation of people and things.
location theory
a logical attempt to explore the location pattern of an economic activity
human environment
reciprocal relationship between humans and environmnet
region
an area on the earht's surface that is marked
place
uniqueness of a location
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place maybe by events that occured there.
perception of place
beliefs or understandings of a place through books or movies
movement
the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the world
spatial interactions
interactions in earth's space
distance
measurement of space between two places
assessability
the degree of ease at which it is possible to reach a certain location
connectivity
the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
landscape
the overall appearance of an area
cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
sequent occupance
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place
cartography
the art and science of making maps
reference maps
maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features
thematic maps
maps that tell stories
absolue location
a place expressed in degrees, longitude, latitude, north or south, the equator, and north, south, east, west
global positioning system (gps)
satelite-based system that tells you where you are
geocaching
a hunt for a cache, gps coordinates which are placed on the internet by another cache
relative location
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
mental map
a map in your head
activity space
the space where everyday activities occur
remote sensing
collecting data through instruments that are distant from the area of object of study
geographic information system (gis)
a collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected
rescale
players at other scales support other positions
formal region
type of region marked by a certain homogenity is one or more phenomena
functional region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
perceptional region
a region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity
culture
the way you live and the people around you
cutlural trait
a single attribute of a culture
cultural complex
many different cultures many different traits
independent invention
a trait that many cultural hearths that develop independent of each other
culture diffusion
the process of discemination, teh spread of an idea or innovation from its source area to other places
time-distance decay
the combination of time and distance
cultural barriers
things in the culture that stop or slow down the research
expansion diffusion
the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population and the numbers of those influenced rapidly increase
contagious diffusion
the distance controls spreading of an illness through a local population
hierarchical diffusion
an idea innovation spreads by first among the most connected places or peoples
stimulus diffusion
a cultural adaptation is cheated as a result fo the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
relocation diffusion
teh regional positional or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
geographic concept
ways of seeing the world spatically that are used by geographers in answering research questions
environmental determinism
teh view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
isotherm
line on a map connecting points equal temperature values
possibilism
geographic viewpoint - a response to determinism that holds the human decision making
cultural ecology
an area of inquiry concened with culture as a system of adaptation to environment
population density
a mearurement of the number of people per given unit of land
arithmetic population density
the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area
physiological population density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land
population distribution
description of locations on teh earth's surface where populations live
dot map
maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon such as population
megalopolis
large cluster of supercities
census
a periodic and official count of coutries population
doubling time
the time it takes for a population to double in size
population explosion
the rapid growth of teh world's human population during the past century
natural increase
increase only with births and deaths
crude birth rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
crude death rate
teh number of deaths
demographic transition
multistage model based on western Europe's experience of change in population growth exhibited by the countries undergoing industrialization
stationary population level
the level at which a national population ceases to grow
population composition
structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties, education
population pyramids
visual representation of the age and sex composition of a population graph
infant mortality rate (IMR)
a figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in the population
child mortality rate
the number of children that die within their first to fifth years in a population
life expectancy
how long an average person lives
AIDS (aquired immune deficiency syndrome)
Immune system disease caused by the human immunodifficiency virus (HIV)
chronic (degenerative) diseases
generally long-lasting afflications now more common because of higher life expectations
expansive population policies
government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
eugenic population policies
government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others
restrictive population policies
government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
remittance
money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countires
cyclic movements
shorter periods away from home (commuting).
activity space
a daily routine where someone goes through a regular sequence of short moves within a local area
nomadism
movement among a definite set of places. Ex of cyclic movement.
periodic movements
tempory, recurrent relocation. Example is colodge, military
migrant labor
people who cross national borders for jobs. Example: periodic movement
transhumance
a seasonal periodic movement of pastorarists and their livestock between highland and lowland
military service
up to 10 million people moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
migration
a change in residence intended to be permanent
international migration
human movement involving movement across international boundaries
internal migration
human movement within a nation-state, such as going westward and southward movements in the US
forced migration
human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate
voluntary migration
movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.
laws of migration
developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, 5 laws that predict the flow of migrants
gravity model
a predication of the interaction of places, population size, distance between them
push factors
negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
pull factors
positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attact people to new locations from other areas
distance decay
the effects of distance on interactions, generally greater the distance teh less interaction
step migration
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
intevening opportunity
the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites further away
kinship links
types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success
chain migration
pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links
immigration wave
phenomenon whereby differnt patterns of migraation build upon one another and creat a wave
explorers
a person examining a region that is unknown to them
colonization
colinizer takes over another place, putting its own government in it
island of development
place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investments and which has high paying jobs
guest workers
legal immigrant who has work visa, usually short term
refugees
people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country
international refugees
refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation
internal refugee
people who have been displaced within their own countires and do not cross international borders as they flee
asylum
shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another country
immigration laws
laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state
quotas
established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
selective immigration
process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating