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Procedure that differentially mates organisms to produce offspring with specific characteristics
Process whereby the environment differentially favors organisms with characteristics that affect survival and production of offspring
Changes in characteristics over successive generations due to natural selection and mutation
Explanation of complex outcomes as the cumulative effect of the three component process identified by Darwin
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Molecule resembling a twisted ladder whose sides are connected by rungs of paired nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine)
Method to determine the age at which an organism lived by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon (C14)
Reproductive cells, a collective term for the sperm and ovum taken together; have only one member of each pair of chromosome
A trait that is exhibited when only one allele is present, a trait expressed in heterozygous cells
A trait that is expressed only when both alleles of a gene are the same, a trait expressed homozygous cells
Traits showing a dominant, recessive, or sex-linked pattern of inheritance. Mendelian traits are not polygenic
Alterations in the nucleotides within a single gene. Can occur spontaneously or from experimental manipulation
Displacement or deletion of genes within chromosomes, or change in the number of chromosomes
Chromosomal aberration consisting of an extra 21st chromosome. Produces varying physical and behavioral impairment
Genetic disorder caused bu a dominant lethal gene that produces progressive mental and physical deterioration after adulthood (also known as Huntington's chorea)
Genetic disorder caused by recessive genes that impair ability to break down phenylalanine; can cause mental retardation if untreated
Studies the similarity of traits between twins, especially identical twins. Twins are concordant if they exhibit the same phenotype
Correlational method to identify sections of chromosomes that are the same for individuals expressing a common trait
Evolutionary effects on systems of mating and rearing offspring; these need not be conscious strategies
Preference for traits that are differentially expressed in the two sexes, for example, body size
Behavior benefiting another organism at an apparent cost to the individual who executed the action
Total reproductive success of those with whom the individual has genes in common e.g., siblings
Selection that favors altruistic acts toward individuals with whom one has genes in common
Altruism in which one individual benefits another when it is likely that the other will return the benefit at a later time
Procedures intended to alter an organism's genes to produce a more favorable phenotype
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