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59 terms

General Psychology - Chapter 3

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artificial selection
Procedure that differentially mates organisms to produce offspring with specific characteristics
natural selection
Process whereby the environment differentially favors organisms with characteristics that affect survival and production of offspring
gene
Unit of heredity, inferred from Mendel's experiments
biological evolution
Changes in characteristics over successive generations due to natural selection and mutation
variation
First component of evolution: individual members of a species differ from one another
selection
Second component of evolution, provides direction to the process
retention
Third component of evolution: the favored variations are retained through heredity
selectionism
Explanation of complex outcomes as the cumulative effect of the three component process identified by Darwin
fossil
Remains of an animal or plant found in the Earth
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Molecule resembling a twisted ladder whose sides are connected by rungs of paired nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine)
bipedalism
Habitually walking upright on two legs
carbon dating
Method to determine the age at which an organism lived by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon (C14)
regulatory genes
Genes that govern genes that code for proteins
hominids
The genus of bipedal apes ancestral to humans
genetics
Study of the hereditary structures of organisms (genes)
heredity
Sum of the traits inherited from one's parents
RNA
Single-stranded nucleic acid that is involved in several functions within the cell
genome
Total set of genetic material of an organism
enzymes
Proteins that regulate processes that occur within cells - organic catalysts
chromosomes
Paired rod-like structures in the nucleus of a cell; contain genes
autosomes
The 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
sex chromosomes
X or Y chromosomes that contain genes affecting sexual development
sexual reproduction
Production of offspring by combining the germ cells of a male and female
germ cells
Reproductive cells, a collective term for the sperm and ovum taken together; have only one member of each pair of chromosome
meiosis
Process of cell division by which germ cells are produced
allele
Alternative forms of the same gene for a trait
dominant allele
A trait that is exhibited when only one allele is present, a trait expressed in heterozygous cells
phenotype
The appearance or behavior of an organism; outward expression of the genotype
recessive allele
A trait that is expressed only when both alleles of a gene are the same, a trait expressed homozygous cells
genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism
polygenic control
Characteristic affected by more than one gene, as with most behavior
Mendelian traits
Traits showing a dominant, recessive, or sex-linked pattern of inheritance. Mendelian traits are not polygenic
sex-linked traits
Traits affected by genes located on the sex chromosomes
mutation
Alterations in the nucleotides within a single gene. Can occur spontaneously or from experimental manipulation
chromosomal aberration
Displacement or deletion of genes within chromosomes, or change in the number of chromosomes
Down's syndrome
Chromosomal aberration consisting of an extra 21st chromosome. Produces varying physical and behavioral impairment
Huntington's disease
Genetic disorder caused bu a dominant lethal gene that produces progressive mental and physical deterioration after adulthood (also known as Huntington's chorea)
phenylketonuria (PKU)
Genetic disorder caused by recessive genes that impair ability to break down phenylalanine; can cause mental retardation if untreated
heritability
Variation in a trait due to genetic factors, varies from 0.0 to 1.0
behavior genetics
The study of how genes affect behavior
nonmendelian trait
Characteristic when alleles do not have a dominant-recessive relation
molecular genetics
The study of genetics at the level of the DNA molecule
knockout mutations
Experimentally induced genetic sequence preventing gene expression
genetic marker
A known nucleotide sequence that occurs at a particular location on a chromosome
concordance research
Studies the similarity of traits between twins, especially identical twins. Twins are concordant if they exhibit the same phenotype
segregation analysis
Correlational method to identify sections of chromosomes that are the same for individuals expressing a common trait
evolutionary psychology
Branch of psychology studying how human behavior is affected by evolution
sociobiology
The study of genetic influences on social behavior, especially in animals
reproductive strategies
Evolutionary effects on systems of mating and rearing offspring; these need not be conscious strategies
monogamy
Mating strategy of one female with one male
polygyny
Mating strategy of one male with more than one female
parental investment
Resources that parents expend in procreating and nurturing offspring
sexual selection
Preference for traits that are differentially expressed in the two sexes, for example, body size
altruistic behavior
Behavior benefiting another organism at an apparent cost to the individual who executed the action
inclusive fitness
Total reproductive success of those with whom the individual has genes in common e.g., siblings
kin selection
Selection that favors altruistic acts toward individuals with whom one has genes in common
reciprocal altruism
Altruism in which one individual benefits another when it is likely that the other will return the benefit at a later time
genetic engineering
Procedures intended to alter an organism's genes to produce a more favorable phenotype
culture
Socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behavior of a group of people