30 terms

Chapter 1: thinking critically with psychological science

Hindsight bias
Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
Critical thinking
Thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions, but rather examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Explanation using integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
Testable prediction, often implied by theory
Operational definition
Statement of procedures used to define research variables
Repeating essence of a research study to see whether basic findings extend to other participants and circumstances
Case study
Observation technique where one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
Technique for ascertaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
False consensus effect
Tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Random sample
Sample that fairly represents population because each member has equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well each factor predicts the other
Graphed cluster of dots, each of which represented values of two variables. Slope of points suggest direction of relationship between two variables. Amount of scatter suggests strength of correlation
Illusory correlation
Perception of a relationship when none exists
Research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors go observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
Double-blind procedure
Experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether research participants have received the treatment or placebo
Placebo effect
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by administration of inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
Experimental condition
Condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of independent variable
Control condition
Condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as comparison for evaluating effect of treatment
Random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups
Independent variable
Experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied
Dependent variable
Outcome factor, variable that may change in response to manipulations of independent variable
Most frequently occurring score in a distribution
Arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding scores and dividing by the number of scores
Middle score in distribution, half the scores are above it and half are below it
Difference between highest and lowest scores in distribution
Standard deviation
Computed measure of how much scores may vary around the mean score
Statistical significance
Statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next