### Critical thinking

Thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions, but rather examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

### Replication

Repeating essence of a research study to see whether basic findings extend to other participants and circumstances

### Case study

Observation technique where one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

### Survey

Technique for ascertaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

### False consensus effect

Tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

### Random sample

Sample that fairly represents population because each member has equal chance of inclusion

### Naturalistic observation

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

### Correlation

Measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well each factor predicts the other

### Scatterplot

Graphed cluster of dots, each of which represented values of two variables. Slope of points suggest direction of relationship between two variables. Amount of scatter suggests strength of correlation

### Experiment

Research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors go observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.

### Double-blind procedure

Experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether research participants have received the treatment or placebo

### Placebo effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by administration of inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

### Experimental condition

Condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of independent variable

### Control condition

Condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as comparison for evaluating effect of treatment

### Random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups

### Independent variable

Experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied

### Dependent variable

Outcome factor, variable that may change in response to manipulations of independent variable

### Mean

Arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding scores and dividing by the number of scores

### Statistical significance

Statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance