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You cannot infer ____ from correlation.

third variable

The reason you cannot infer causation from correlation is because there may be a ____ ____ present.


True or false: To tell if changes in variable X cause changes in variable Y, we must rule out (or account for) any other variables that might cause changes in variable Y.


One of the main purposes of conducting an experiment is to tell whether changes in one variable ____ changes in another variable.


True or false: To tell if changes in variable X cause changes in variable Y, we simply have to show that there is a consistent correlation between the two variable.

independent variable

In an experiment, the variable that is being directly manipulated by the researcher.

dependent variable

In an experiment, the variable that is being measured.

independent dependent

In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the ____ variable to see if this causes a change in the ____ variable.


In an experiment, the group of subjects that is exposed to the independent variable is the ____ group.


In an experiment, the ____ group is the group that experiences all the same conditions as the experimental group, except for exposure to the independent variable.


We use ____ assignment to help insure that there is little average difference between the participants in the control group and the experimental group.


A ____ is a dummy medicine that looks like the real thing, but doesn't have any active ingredients.

placebo effect

If participants react to a sugar pill as though they were receiving real treatment, this would be an example of the ____ ____.


True or false: The placebo effect is a purely mental phenomenon and has no real effect on a person's physiology or health.

placebo effect

Giving a placebo to your control group helps rule out the possibility that the effects of your treatment are due to the ____ ____.

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