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Ch. 2 Test - Research Methods in Psychology

This Flashcard set is based on chapter 2 of Intro to Psychology, by Lahey, preparing you for the chapter 2 test.
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Surveys
Descriptive methods that involve asking questions of groups, who are representative of the entire population
Naturalistic observation
an unobtrusive method of observing behavior in real life settings
Clinical observation
observing people when they are receiving help from a mental health professional for personal problems
Correlational research method
research that describes, in statistical terms, systematic relations between 'quantitatively' measured variables
Correlation Coefficient
provides a standard mathematical method of measuring the strength of the relationship between two variables
Correlational studies
DO NOT reach conclusions of cause - effect relationships between variables, but the strength of a relationship
Formal experiments
research that leads to conclusions of cause - effect relationships between variables
Independent Variable
the factor in a formal experiment that is manipulated to measure the outcome of the manipulation
Dependent Variable
the outcome of a formal experiment, measuring the effect of manipulating an independent variable
Placebo effect
a 'fake' independent variable, measuring the accuracy of the independent variable being manipulated
Double blind
both researcher and participants being unaware of the condition of the independent variable
Experimental group
the participants in an experiment who are interacting with the independent variable
Control group
the participants in an experiment who are not interacting with the independent variable, being used as comparison to the experimental group
Empirical Evidence
evidence based on observations of publicly observable phenomena that can be confirmed by others
Operational Definition
a precise and specific statement regarding what is being researched
Replication
the process in which a study is repeated until reasonable confidence in the research results is achieved
Survey Method
a research method using interviews and questionaires
Random Assignment
requirement in research that participants be assigned to experimental groups randomly rather than in some systematic way
Experimenter Bias
potential influences on the dependent variable caused by the experimenter interacting differently with participants in the experimental and control groups
Experimental Control
requirement that all explanations for differences in the dependent variable other differences than the independent variable are controlled in the way the formal experiment is set up
Scientific Method
testing the hypothesis, following the rules of evidence (despite any prejudice by the experimenter), systematic observation, analysis of data, following the conclusion
Descriptive method
the most simple purpose and outcome of any research method
Correlational methods
seeking to establish a relationship between two variables in a research project
Positive correlation
when one variable increases in value in relation to another value's increase
Correlation coefficient of zero
a research conclusion that there is no relationship between two variables
Perfect positive correlation
one variable can be perfectly predicted if you know the value of the second variable
Placebo
the example of a participant receiving a sugar pill to see if the effect is the same as the participant receiving the actual medication
Median
the middle point in a set of numbers
Standard Deviation
a measure that indicates the degree to which scores are spread out in a distribution
Statistical Significance
a given correlation is likely significant if the sample size is larger
Debriefing (an ethical principle)
when a researcher provides the results of the study to all participants
Informed consent (an ethical principle)
potential participants must receive a full description of the experiment before agreeing to the experiment
Freedom from coercion (an ethical principle)
a potential participant must not be forced or threatened to participant in a research experiment
Ethical treatment of animals in research
necessity for the benefits of humans, healthful treatment of the animal, humane treatment of the animal
Confidentiality
research participants must be be assured of their anonymity
Differing conditions
Formal experiments compare quantitative measures of behavior under_____ ________
Disadvantage of formal experiments
artificial settings for the experiment, which may miss real life settings practical for the conclusion
Advantage of formal experiments
allows researchers to understand cause / effect relationships
Disadvantage of correlational studies
correlations do not prove cause / effect relationships
Advantage of correlational studies
allows researchers to understand the strength of relationships between two variables
Disadvantage of a clinical research method
the research represents tow small of a sample size to be representative
Advantage of a clinical research method
in depth study of a person's behaviors, thoughts, and mental processes
Disadvantage of naturalistic observation
observers may influence the 'natural settings'
Advantage of naturalistic observation
allows observation of behavior in its natural context, not in a laboratory
Disadvantage of survey research method
the accuracy of information may be questionable
Advantage of survey research method
results can college a great deal of inforamtion in a short amount of time
Mean
the average of all collected statistics
Mode
the most frequently appearing score
Standard Deviation
a measure of dispersion of scores in the research results
Cause / effect
the outcome of formal experiments
Scientific method
What method of gathering information involves systematic observation, adhering to strict rules of evidence, and thinking critically about that evidence?
hypothesis
A prediction based on tentative explanations of observations in science is called _____________
operational definition
José and his research group are studying the effects of acculturation on first graders. To clarify what they mean by "acculturation" they need a specific ________ for the term.
replicate
Clara hoped that other researchers would be able to get the same results she did in her experiment, which would provide more support for her findings. Therefore, she was extremely careful in laying out the steps of her research project so that, in scientific terms, the other researchers could _______ her study.
descriptive
Surveys, naturalistic observations, and the clinical method represent which type of scientific inquiry?
survey research gathers info in a relatively short period of time.
After learning that people who respond to surveys may not be providing answers that are completely honest, Monty asks Professor Duran why surveys would be used. Professor Duran advises Monty that the primary advantage of the survey method is that...
naturalist observation
When anthropologist Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees in Africa, she carefully watched and recorded their behavior. She used which research method?
negative correlation
Nancy has found that when she spends a lot of time going to movies with her friends, she does not do well in school. This demonstrates a...
-.85
A correlation coefficient shows the strongest relationship between two variables if it has a _____ rather than a -.18 or a +.85 (p.31-32, Lahey)
formal experiment
Bill wants to find the best way to draw conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships. Which research method should he use?
aggressive behavior of boys
The text describes an experiment that explores the effects of media violence on 400 boys aged 6 to 8. Before playing floor hockey, 200 of the boys viewed a highly violent film and the other 200 boys viewed a nonviolent film. When all of the boys later played floor hockey, observers counted the number of aggressive acts performed by each boy. The dependent variable in this experiment was the...
experimental
The text describes an experiment that explores the effects of media violence on 400 boys aged 6 to 8. Before playing floor hockey, 200 of the boys viewed a highly violent film and the other 200 boys viewed a nonviolent film. When all of the boys later played floor hockey, observers counted the number of aggressive acts performed by each boy. The boys in this experiment who viewed the violent film were in the ________ group.
placebo
Frieda participated in a study to test a medication for treating osteoporosis, a degenerative bone disease. Half of the participants in that study received a pill containing the real medication and the other half received a pill that contained no active ingredients, i.e., no medication. Those who received the pill with no active ingredients were given...
mean score
Ahmad takes a test in his psychology class. The professor adds up the scores that each student got on the test, then divides that sum by the total number of students who took the test. When the professor tells the class what the "average grade" was on the test, the professor is referring to which statistic?
statistical significance does not equal practical significance
An important issue to bear in mind when interpreting tests of statistical significance is that...
The nature of the deception must be fully revealed to participants immediately after their participation in the experiment.
The American Psychological Association's ethical guidelines for research with human participants allow deception in aspects of the study that do not influence the decision to participate. What is the other condition concerning deception in research?
Such research is ethical only when necessary to significantly advance the understanding of human or animal behavior and mental processes.
Concerning the American Psychological Association's ethical guidelines concerning the use of nonhuman animals for research ....
the rule will help us determine whether sex and/or cultural differences exist with regard to key research findings.
Why does the U.S. National Institutes of Health require research to involve human subjects of both sexes and members of different racial and cultural groups whenever possible?
human treatment
In working with nonhuman animals, ______ refers to the concept of minimizing the discomfort of animals, such as performing surgeries under adequate anesthesia.
empirical
Evidence gathered from publicly observable behavior is known as ______ evidence.
correlation coefficient
The degree of association between variables is expressed statistically as the....
independent variable
The variable that the researcher controls is called the...
neither the experimenter or the participant
In a double blind study, who knows about the details of the study?
There is a numerical relationship between the two variables.
Several lab groups found a strong positive correlation between number of hours spent on campus and grades. What can you conclude from this information?
placebo effect
In a drug study, sometimes the pill with an inert substance (such as a sugar pill) may have an unintended effect. This is called the _______
the survey method
Dr. Carr needs a lot of information directly from people and has only one week to collect that information. Dr. Carr would probably benefit most by using
in real life settings
Naturalistic observation describes a research technique in which careful observation and recording of behavior occurs
depends on
The dependent variable is called dependent because its value ______ other parts of the experiment.
random assignment
A researcher has 40 people to assign into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The researcher flips a coin: heads, experimental group and tails, control group. This is an example of
naturalistic observation
The clinical method is a variation of
confidentiality
Rather than recording data from a study that is linked to the participant's names, the researchers arranged to give each participant a random number. Only the participant knows his or her random number, and these numbers are not connected to the participant's identity in any way. This procedure of conducting a study helps to ensure
dependent
In a formal experiment, the variable that the experimenter measures is the ________ variable.
continuing the number of homicides that occur on a TV show
Which of the following would be an operational definition designed to measure the amount of violence on television?
The older the driver, the fewer errors on the driving test
The Department of Motor Vehicles recently completed a study that indicated there is a negative correlation between the age of the driver and the number of errors on the written driving test. This result means that
experiments.
Successful replication means that certain conclusions about behavior have been repeated in ________
Science is critical thinking
What is the relationship between the scientific method and critical thinking?
causation
A danger in using the correlational strategy is that one might attribute _________ between two events.
independent
In an experiment, the factors that are manipulated by the experimenter are known as _______ variables.
behavior or mental processes
A nonhuman animal experiment meets the condition of necessity when the research significantly advances our understanding of _______________.
There is no statistical relationship
What does it mean when there is zero (0) correlation between two variables?
When a person tends to be tall, they tend to be heavy.
A researcher finds that a person's height and weight are significantly positively correlated. Which interpretation below makes the most sense?
orderly and lawful.
Science requires that the subject matter be
descriptive
Research methods 'survey technique' and 'naturalistic observation' both are _________ in nature.
rules
When observing nature, all scientists follow strict ______
publicly observable
The key component of empirical evidence this that it must be based on _____ behavior.
statistical
Practical significance is different than _________significance.
experimenter bias
When _____________ takes place, it means that the experimenter influenced the performance of the participants.
descriptive
Of all the research methods described in the text, the ___ is the simplest method.
survey method
A psychology student wants to find mor information about text anxiety. She constructs a 'test anxiety questionaire' and gives it to other students, This is an example of a ...
representative
According to chapter 2, in order to be valid a sample must be...
positive
In a correlational study, variable A is found to generally increase in value as variable B increases. The two variables have a _______ correlation.
variable
In a research study participants recorded the number of cigarettes smoked per day. "Number of cigarettes" smoked per day is referred to as a ____
formal experiment
A __________ compares quantitative measures in relation to the conditions created by researchers.
correlational
The goal of __________ research is to show the degree of relationship between two variables.
positive
If criminal activity were found to increase as temperatures increase, researchers could conclude that there is a ________ correlation to crime and temperature.
perfect positive correlation
If two variables have a ___________, one variable can be perfectly predicted if you know the value of the second variable.
control group
The members of a ______ receive the independent variable in an experiment.
correlation
A psychologist is studying the effects that different noise levels have on stress. Noise levels are considered the ___________
dependent variable
A psychologist studied the effect of blood alcohol driving behavior. In this study the driving behavior was the _____
blind experiments
____________ minimize experimenter bias in formal research studies.
experimenter bias
Researchers who act differently toward some participants are engaging in ______
median
The middle point in a set of numbers
standard deviation
A measure that indicates the degree to which socres are spread out in a distribution
debriefing
When a researcher provides the results of their study to all participants, they are following the ethical principle of __________
informed consent
Before participating in research, potential participants must receive a full description of the experiment, demonstrating the ethical principle of ___
freedom of coercion
If a student is required to participate in a research study, in order to pass a course, this a violation of the ethical principle of ____
Key Components of Scientific Method
identifying a testing hypothesis, following rules of evidence, systematic observation
empircal data
evidence from observation of public phenomena describes _________
representative
According to the textbook, in order to be valid, a sample must be ____________
replicated
In order to be accepted, research results must be __________
ABC's of Laboratory Research
All animal research must comply with the __________ to ensure that it complies with the law and is carried out in an ethical and human manner.
experiment
A kind of research in which the researcher controls all of the conditions and directly manipulates the conditions, including the manipulated variable (independent variable.
accuracy
The extent to which an experimental measure is free from error.
brain imaging
A range of experimental techniques that make brain structures and brain activity visible.
Case Study
examination of one person.
Central Tendency
A measure that represents the typical behavior of the group as a whole
Confound
Anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study.
Control Group
The participants in a study that receive no intervention or an intervention different from the one being studied.
Correlational Study
A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them.
Cross Sectional Study
A research method that compares participants in different groups (e.g. young and old) at the same time
Culturally Sensitive Study
Studies that take into account the ways culture affects thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Data
Objective observations or measurements.
Dependent Variables
In an experiment, the measure that is affected by manipulation of the independent variable.
Descriptive Statistics
Overall summary of data.
Descriptive Studies
A research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or other animals in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behavior.
Directionality Problem
When researchers find a relationship between two variables in a correlational study, they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
A device that measures electrical activity in the brain.
Experiment
A study that tests casual hypothesis by measuring and manipulating variables.
Experimental Group
The participants in a study that receive the intervention.
Experimenter Expectation Effect
Actual change in the behavior of the people or animals being observed that is due to observer bias.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
An imaging technique used to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain.
Hypothesis
A specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct.
Independent Variable
The condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable.
Inferential Statistics
A set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers.
Institutional Review Boards
Groups of people responsible for reviewing propsed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants.
Longitudinal Studies
A research method that measures the same participants multiple times.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A method of brain imaging that produces high-quality images of the brain.
Mean
A measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers.
Median
A measure of central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers that fall exactly halfway between the lowest and highest values.
Meta - Analysis
A "study of studies" that combines the findings of multiple studies to arrive at a conclusion.
Mode
A measure of central tendency that is the most frequent score or value in a set of numbers.
Naturalistic Observation
A passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter ongoing behavior.
Observational Technique
A research method of careful and systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior.
Observer Bias
Systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations.
Participant Observer
A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation.
Population
Everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
A method of brain imaging that assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream.
Random Assignment
The procedure for placing research participants into the conditions of the experiment in which each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable.
Reactivity
When the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed.
Reliability
The extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions.
Replication
Repetition of an experiment to confirm the results.
Research
Scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data.
Response Performance
A research method in which researchers quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to a specific stimulus.
Sample
A subset of a population.
ScatterPlot
A graphical depiction of the relationship between two variables.
Scientific Method
A systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why.
Selection Bias
When participants in different groups in an experiment differ systematically.
Self-Report Method
A method of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in questionnaires or surveys.
Standard Deviation
A statistical measure of how far away each value is, on average, from the mean.
Theory
A model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events.
Third Variable Problem
When the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable and therefore cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the dependent variable.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
The use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions.
Validity
The extent to which the data collected address the research hypothesis in the way intended
Variability
In a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and from the mean.
Variable
Something in the world that can be measured and can vary.
Theory
A way of organizing related hypotheses
control group
Permits a contrast between manipulating the independent variable and no treatment
Independent Variable
Manipulated by the experimenter
Operational definition
Must remain constant throughout the experiment
different orders to different birds
The Zoology Department's guest speaker should have counterbalanced his experiment. How should he have presented the models of predators?
Confounding of participant variables is less likely
If a researcher assigns participants randomly to the various groups used in an experiment which of the following will apply?
"single blind study"
Participant expectations will not affect the results
no variables can be manipulated
In a correlational study which of the following is true?
When do researchers use correlational studies?
Variables of interest cannot be altered by the researchers
Drawbacks for a single case research study
Participants may not be representative of the population as a wholev
What does discourse analysis assume?
Attitudes are relatively unstable
When should research subjects receive a debriefing?
At the end of their participation or the end of the experiment
What is the median calculated by?
Arranging all scores in numerical order and finding the midpoint
the mean
The most common measure of central tendency, but the median is more representative
the square root of the variance
Which of the following statements about standard deviation is true?
a true statement about scatterplots
Indicates the relation between two variables
showing scatterplots of scores
The correlation coefficient is more convenient than which of the following?
Results were probably not due to chance
If the results of an experiment are statistically significant, what may we conclude?
Calculates the likelihood that the difference in mean scores was caused by chance
To determine whether results are statistically significant, what might the experimenter do?
What does the null hypothesis state?
There is no relationship between variable X and variable Y
The Scientific Method
What method of gathering information involves systematic observation, adhering to strict rules of evidence, and thinking critically about that evidence?
Operational definition
José and his research group are studying the effects of acculturation on first graders. To clarify what they mean by "acculturation" they need a specific ________ for the term.
Hypothesis
A prediction based on tentative explanations of observations in science is called a
replicate
Clara hoped that other researchers would be able to get the same results she did in her experiment, which would provide more support for her findings. Therefore, she was extremely careful in laying out the steps of her research project so that, in scientific terms, the other researchers could _______ her study.
descriptive studies
Surveys, naturalistic observations, and the clinical method represent which type of scientific inquiry?
survey research allows a lot of information to be gathered in a relatively short period of time.
After learning that people who respond to surveys may not be providing answers that are completely honest, Monty asks Professor Duran why surveys would be used. Professor Duran advises Monty that the primary advantage of the survey method is that
naturalistic observation
When anthropologist Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees in Africa, she carefully watched and recorded their behavior. She used which research method?
+.80
Which correlation coefficient shows the strongest relationship between two variables? A) -.85
B) +.80
C) 0.00
D) +.15
negative correlation
Yeh has found that when she spends a lot of time going to movies with her friends, she does not do well in school. This demonstrates a ____________
formal experiment
Uri wants to find the best way to draw conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships. Which research method should he use?
aggressive behavior of the boys
The text describes an experiment that explores the effects of media violence on 400 boys aged 6 to 8. Before playing floor hockey, 200 of the boys viewed a highly violent film and the other 200 boys viewed a nonviolent film. When all of the boys later played floor hockey, observers counted the number of aggressive acts performed by each boy. The dependent variable in this experiment was the
experimental
The text describes an experiment that explores the effects of media violence on 400 boys aged 6 to 8. Before playing floor hockey, 200 of the boys viewed a highly violent film and the other 200 boys viewed a nonviolent film. When all of the boys later played floor hockey, observers counted the number of aggressive acts performed by each boy. The boys in this experiment who viewed the violent film were in the ________ group.
a placebo
Rose participated in a study to test a medication for treating osteoporosis, a degenerative bone disease. Half of the participants in that study received a pill containing the real medication and the other half received a pill that contained no active ingredients, i.e., no medication. Those who received the pill with no active ingredients were given
mean
Ahmad takes a test in his psychology class. The professor adds up the scores that each student got on the test, then divides that sum by the total number of students who took the test. When the professor tells the class what the "average grade" was on the test, the professor is referring to which statistic?
statistical significance does not equal practical significance.
An important issue to bear in mind when interpreting tests of statistical significance is that
The nature of the deception must be fully revealed to participants immediately after their participation in the experiment.
The American Psychological Association's ethical guidelines for research with human participants allow deception in aspects of the study that do not influence the decision to participate. What is the other condition concerning deception in research?
Such research is ethical only when necessary to significantly advance the understanding of human or animal behavior and mental processes.
Which statement concerning the American Psychological Association's ethical guidelines concerning the use of nonhuman animals for research is correct?
The rule will help us determine whether sex and/or cultural differences exist with regard to key research findings.
Why does the U.S. National Institutes of Health require research to involve human subjects of both sexes and members of different racial and cultural groups whenever possible?
Empirical evidence
_______ is based on observations of publicly observable phenomena.
descriptive
The survey method is an example of a _________ study.
relationship
The correlational method studies the __________ between two variables.
causation
Correlation does not necessarily mean _____________
penalty
Under the ethical guideline of freedom from coercion, participants are free to change their minds and withdraw from an experiment without ____________, even after the experiment has begun.