Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

This Flashcard set is based on chapter 2 of Intro to Psychology, by Lahey, preparing you for the chapter 2 test.


Descriptive methods that involve asking questions of groups, who are representative of the entire population

Naturalistic observation

an unobtrusive method of observing behavior in real life settings

Clinical observation

observing people when they are receiving help from a mental health professional for personal problems

Correlational research method

research that describes, in statistical terms, systematic relations between 'quantitatively' measured variables

Correlation Coefficient

provides a standard mathematical method of measuring the strength of the relationship between two variables

Correlational studies

DO NOT reach conclusions of cause - effect relationships between variables, but the strength of a relationship

Formal experiments

research that leads to conclusions of cause - effect relationships between variables

Independent Variable

the factor in a formal experiment that is manipulated to measure the outcome of the manipulation

Dependent Variable

the outcome of a formal experiment, measuring the effect of manipulating an independent variable

Placebo effect

a 'fake' independent variable, measuring the accuracy of the independent variable being manipulated

Double blind

both researcher and participants being unaware of the condition of the independent variable

Experimental group

the participants in an experiment who are interacting with the independent variable

Control group

the participants in an experiment who are not interacting with the independent variable, being used as comparison to the experimental group

Empirical Evidence

evidence based on observations of publicly observable phenomena that can be confirmed by others

Operational Definition

a precise and specific statement regarding what is being researched


the process in which a study is repeated until reasonable confidence in the research results is achieved

Survey Method

a research method using interviews and questionaires

Random Assignment

requirement in research that participants be assigned to experimental groups randomly rather than in some systematic way

Experimenter Bias

potential influences on the dependent variable caused by the experimenter interacting differently with participants in the experimental and control groups

Experimental Control

requirement that all explanations for differences in the dependent variable other differences than the independent variable are controlled in the way the formal experiment is set up

Scientific Method

testing the hypothesis, following the rules of evidence (despite any prejudice by the experimenter), systematic observation, analysis of data, following the conclusion

Descriptive method

the most simple purpose and outcome of any research method

Correlational methods

seeking to establish a relationship between two variables in a research project

Positive correlation

when one variable increases in value in relation to another value's increase

Correlation coefficient of zero

a research conclusion that there is no relationship between two variables

Perfect positive correlation

one variable can be perfectly predicted if you know the value of the second variable


the example of a participant receiving a sugar pill to see if the effect is the same as the participant receiving the actual medication


the middle point in a set of numbers

Standard Deviation

a measure that indicates the degree to which scores are spread out in a distribution

Statistical Significance

a given correlation is likely significant if the sample size is larger

Debriefing (an ethical principle)

when a researcher provides the results of the study to all participants

Informed consent (an ethical principle)

potential participants must receive a full description of the experiment before agreeing to the experiment

Freedom from coercion (an ethical principle)

a potential participant must not be forced or threatened to participant in a research experiment

Ethical treatment of animals in research

necessity for the benefits of humans, healthful treatment of the animal, humane treatment of the animal


research participants must be be assured of their anonymity

Differing conditions

Formal experiments compare quantitative measures of behavior under_____ ________

Disadvantage of formal experiments

artificial settings for the experiment, which may miss real life settings practical for the conclusion

Advantage of formal experiments

allows researchers to understand cause / effect relationships

Disadvantage of correlational studies

correlations do not prove cause / effect relationships

Advantage of correlational studies

allows researchers to understand the strength of relationships between two variables

Disadvantage of a clinical research method

the research represents tow small of a sample size to be representative

Advantage of a clinical research method

in depth study of a person's behaviors, thoughts, and mental processes

Disadvantage of naturalistic observation

observers may influence the 'natural settings'

Advantage of naturalistic observation

allows observation of behavior in its natural context, not in a laboratory

Disadvantage of survey research method

the accuracy of information may be questionable

Advantage of survey research method

results can college a great deal of inforamtion in a short amount of time


the average of all collected statistics


the most frequently appearing score

Standard Deviation

a measure of dispersion of scores in the research results

Cause / effect

the outcome of formal experiments

Scientific method

What method of gathering information involves systematic observation, adhering to strict rules of evidence, and thinking critically about that evidence?


A prediction based on tentative explanations of observations in science is called _____________

operational definition

José and his research group are studying the effects of acculturation on first graders. To clarify what they mean by "acculturation" they need a specific ________ for the term.


Clara hoped that other researchers would be able to get the same results she did in her experiment, which would provide more support for her findings. Therefore, she was extremely careful in laying out the steps of her research project so that, in scientific terms, the other researchers could _______ her study.


Surveys, naturalistic observations, and the clinical method represent which type of scientific inquiry?

survey research gathers info in a relatively short period of time.

After learning that people who respond to surveys may not be providing answers that are completely honest, Monty asks Professor Duran why surveys would be used. Professor Duran advises Monty that the primary advantage of the survey method is that...

naturalist observation

When anthropologist Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees in Africa, she carefully watched and recorded their behavior. She used which research method?

negative correlation

Nancy has found that when she spends a lot of time going to movies with her friends, she does not do well in school. This demonstrates a...


A correlation coefficient shows the strongest relationship between two variables if it has a _____ rather than a -.18 or a +.85 (p.31-32, Lahey)

formal experiment

Bill wants to find the best way to draw conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships. Which research method should he use?

aggressive behavior of boys

The text describes an experiment that explores the effects of media violence on 400 boys aged 6 to 8. Before playing floor hockey, 200 of the boys viewed a highly violent film and the other 200 boys viewed a nonviolent film. When all of the boys later played floor hockey, observers counted the number of aggressive acts performed by each boy. The dependent variable in this experiment was the...


The text describes an experiment that explores the effects of media violence on 400 boys aged 6 to 8. Before playing floor hockey, 200 of the boys viewed a highly violent film and the other 200 boys viewed a nonviolent film. When all of the boys later played floor hockey, observers counted the number of aggressive acts performed by each boy. The boys in this experiment who viewed the violent film were in the ________ group.


Frieda participated in a study to test a medication for treating osteoporosis, a degenerative bone disease. Half of the participants in that study received a pill containing the real medication and the other half received a pill that contained no active ingredients, i.e., no medication. Those who received the pill with no active ingredients were given...

mean score

Ahmad takes a test in his psychology class. The professor adds up the scores that each student got on the test, then divides that sum by the total number of students who took the test. When the professor tells the class what the "average grade" was on the test, the professor is referring to which statistic?

statistical significance does not equal practical significance

An important issue to bear in mind when interpreting tests of statistical significance is that...

The nature of the deception must be fully revealed to participants immediately after their participation in the experiment.

The American Psychological Association's ethical guidelines for research with human participants allow deception in aspects of the study that do not influence the decision to participate. What is the other condition concerning deception in research?

Such research is ethical only when necessary to significantly advance the understanding of human or animal behavior and mental processes.

Concerning the American Psychological Association's ethical guidelines concerning the use of nonhuman animals for research ....

the rule will help us determine whether sex and/or cultural differences exist with regard to key research findings.

Why does the U.S. National Institutes of Health require research to involve human subjects of both sexes and members of different racial and cultural groups whenever possible?

human treatment

In working with nonhuman animals, ______ refers to the concept of minimizing the discomfort of animals, such as performing surgeries under adequate anesthesia.


Evidence gathered from publicly observable behavior is known as ______ evidence.

correlation coefficient

The degree of association between variables is expressed statistically as the....

independent variable

The variable that the researcher controls is called the...

neither the experimenter or the participant

In a double blind study, who knows about the details of the study?

There is a numerical relationship between the two variables.

Several lab groups found a strong positive correlation between number of hours spent on campus and grades. What can you conclude from this information?

placebo effect

In a drug study, sometimes the pill with an inert substance (such as a sugar pill) may have an unintended effect. This is called the _______

the survey method

Dr. Carr needs a lot of information directly from people and has only one week to collect that information. Dr. Carr would probably benefit most by using

in real life settings

Naturalistic observation describes a research technique in which careful observation and recording of behavior occurs

depends on

The dependent variable is called dependent because its value ______ other parts of the experiment.

random assignment

A researcher has 40 people to assign into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The researcher flips a coin: heads, experimental group and tails, control group. This is an example of

naturalistic observation

The clinical method is a variation of


Rather than recording data from a study that is linked to the participant's names, the researchers arranged to give each participant a random number. Only the participant knows his or her random number, and these numbers are not connected to the participant's identity in any way. This procedure of conducting a study helps to ensure


In a formal experiment, the variable that the experimenter measures is the ________ variable.

continuing the number of homicides that occur on a TV show

Which of the following would be an operational definition designed to measure the amount of violence on television?

The older the driver, the fewer errors on the driving test

The Department of Motor Vehicles recently completed a study that indicated there is a negative correlation between the age of the driver and the number of errors on the written driving test. This result means that


Successful replication means that certain conclusions about behavior have been repeated in ________

Science is critical thinking

What is the relationship between the scientific method and critical thinking?


A danger in using the correlational strategy is that one might attribute _________ between two events.


In an experiment, the factors that are manipulated by the experimenter are known as _______ variables.

behavior or mental processes

A nonhuman animal experiment meets the condition of necessity when the research significantly advances our understanding of _______________.

There is no statistical relationship

What does it mean when there is zero (0) correlation between two variables?

When a person tends to be tall, they tend to be heavy.

A researcher finds that a person's height and weight are significantly positively correlated. Which interpretation below makes the most sense?

orderly and lawful.

Science requires that the subject matter be


Research methods 'survey technique' and 'naturalistic observation' both are _________ in nature.


When observing nature, all scientists follow strict ______

publicly observable

The key component of empirical evidence this that it must be based on _____ behavior.


Practical significance is different than _________significance.

experimenter bias

When _____________ takes place, it means that the experimenter influenced the performance of the participants.


Of all the research methods described in the text, the ___ is the simplest method.

survey method

A psychology student wants to find mor information about text anxiety. She constructs a 'test anxiety questionaire' and gives it to other students, This is an example of a ...


According to chapter 2, in order to be valid a sample must be...


In a correlational study, variable A is found to generally increase in value as variable B increases. The two variables have a _______ correlation.


In a research study participants recorded the number of cigarettes smoked per day. "Number of cigarettes" smoked per day is referred to as a ____

formal experiment

A __________ compares quantitative measures in relation to the conditions created by researchers.


The goal of __________ research is to show the degree of relationship between two variables.


If criminal activity were found to increase as temperatures increase, researchers could conclude that there is a ________ correlation to crime and temperature.

perfect positive correlation

If two variables have a ___________, one variable can be perfectly predicted if you know the value of the second variable.

control group

The members of a ______ receive the independent variable in an experiment.


A psychologist is studying the effects that different noise levels have on stress. Noise levels are considered the ___________

dependent variable

A psychologist studied the effect of blood alcohol driving behavior. In this study the driving behavior was the _____

blind experiments

____________ minimize experimenter bias in formal research studies.

experimenter bias

Researchers who act differently toward some participants are engaging in ______


The middle point in a set of numbers

standard deviation

A measure that indicates the degree to which socres are spread out in a distribution


When a researcher provides the results of their study to all participants, they are following the ethical principle of __________

informed consent

Before participating in research, potential participants must receive a full description of the experiment, demonstrating the ethical principle of ___

freedom of coercion

If a student is required to participate in a research study, in order to pass a course, this a violation of the ethical principle of ____

Key Components of Scientific Method

identifying a testing hypothesis, following rules of evidence, systematic observation

empircal data

evidence from observation of public phenomena describes _________


According to the textbook, in order to be valid, a sample must be ____________


In order to be accepted, research results must be __________

ABC's of Laboratory Research

All animal research must comply with the __________ to ensure that it complies with the law and is carried out in an ethical and human manner.


A kind of research in which the researcher controls all of the conditions and directly manipulates the conditions, including the manipulated variable (independent variable.


The extent to which an experimental measure is free from error.

brain imaging

A range of experimental techniques that make brain structures and brain activity visible.

Case Study

examination of one person.

Central Tendency

A measure that represents the typical behavior of the group as a whole


Anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study.

Control Group

The participants in a study that receive no intervention or an intervention different from the one being studied.

Correlational Study

A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them.

Cross Sectional Study

A research method that compares participants in different groups (e.g. young and old) at the same time

Culturally Sensitive Study

Studies that take into account the ways culture affects thoughts, feelings, and actions.


Objective observations or measurements.

Dependent Variables

In an experiment, the measure that is affected by manipulation of the independent variable.

Descriptive Statistics

Overall summary of data.

Descriptive Studies

A research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or other animals in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behavior.

Directionality Problem

When researchers find a relationship between two variables in a correlational study, they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

A device that measures electrical activity in the brain.


A study that tests casual hypothesis by measuring and manipulating variables.

Experimental Group

The participants in a study that receive the intervention.

Experimenter Expectation Effect

Actual change in the behavior of the people or animals being observed that is due to observer bias.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

An imaging technique used to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain.


A specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct.

Independent Variable

The condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable.

Inferential Statistics

A set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers.

Institutional Review Boards

Groups of people responsible for reviewing propsed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants.

Longitudinal Studies

A research method that measures the same participants multiple times.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

A method of brain imaging that produces high-quality images of the brain.


A measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers.


A measure of central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers that fall exactly halfway between the lowest and highest values.

See more

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording