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usual pattern of food choices
4 of 10 leading causes of death


life-sustaining substances in food.
components of food required for the body's functioning


scientific study of nutrients & how the body uses them. The science of how food nourishes the body


any substance that the body can take in & assimilate that will enable it to stay alive


study of the composition & characteristics of matter & the changes that can occur to it


smallest functional unit in a living organism


chemical processes that take place in living cells

essential nutrient

nutrient that must be supplied by food
1. missing from body causes deficiency
2. add back & recover
3. science can explain why lack causes problems

deficiency disease

state of health that occurs when a nutrient is missing from the diet

6 classes of nutrients

1. carbs
2. lipids (includes fats)
3. proteins
4. vitamins
5. minerals
6. water

nutrient functions (4)

1. provide energy (main)
2. building material
3. maintenance & repair
4. support growth

4 classes of nutrients that are organic

1. carbs
2. fats
3. proteins
4. vitamins
(organic = contain C-C bonds)

3 classes of nutrients that provide energy

1. carbs
2. fats
3. proteins


substances found in plant foods that are not classified as "nutrients" but are beneficial to health

dietary supplements

-a product that contains a vitamin, mineral, herb or other plant product, AA, or dietary substance that supplements the diet by increasing total intake.
- DSHEA classifies them as food

carbs function


lipids function (4)

1. energy (fat)
2. cellular devel. physical growth & development
3. regulation of body processes
4. absorption of certain vitamins

protein function (4)

1. structural components
2. cellular devel. growth & maintenance
3. regulation of body processes
4. energy

vitamin function (2)

1. regulation of body processes, incl. cell metabolism
2 immune function, production & maintenance of tissues & protection

mineral function

1. regulation of body processes (fluid balance, metabolism, formation of certain chemical messengers, structural & functional components, necessary for physical growth, maintenance & develop

water function

maintenance of fluid balance, body temp, elimination of wastes & transport of substances, participate in many chemical reactions

risk factor

personal characteristic that influences chances of developing disease (ex. genetics, age, environment, etc)

acquired disease

condition that is associated with infections, lifestyle behaviors & diet (ex. heart attack, diabetes, stroke or deficiencies


a person's way of living such as dietary practices, physical activity & use of drugs, smoking, alcohol, sleep, stress)
smoking & alcohol are the only 2 worse than diet


one thousand


one tenth


one hundredth


one thousandth


one millionth

1 inch

2.5 cm
ex. 65" x 2.5 = 162.5cm

1 ounce


1 pound


2.2 pounds

ex. 130lbs/2.2=50kg

kilocalorie or Calorie

measure of food energy
a kilocalorie is the heat energy needed to raise the temp of 1000g of water 1 celsius

primary energy source

carbs, fats, proteins


needed in relatively large amounts
provide energy
ex. carbs, proteins & fats
water needed in large amounts, but not macronutrient b/c doesn't provide energy

carb calories

4 kcal/gram

protein calories

4 kcal/gram

fat calories

9 kcal/gram

alcohol calories

7 kcal/gram


needed in very small amounts
do not provide energy
vitamins & minerals

10 key nutrition concepts

1. most naturally occurring foods are a mixture of nutrients
2. eating a variety of foods helps ensure nutritional adequacy of diet
3. there are no "good" or "bad" foods
4. eat all food in moderation
5. for each nutrient there is a range of safe intakes
6. food is the best source of nutrients & phytochem.
7. no "one size fits all" approach to planning a nutritionally adequate diet
8. foods & the nutrients they contain are not cure alls
9. malnutrition includes "over" & "under"
10. nutrition is a dynamic science

nutrient dense

- a measure of nutrients per calorie
- food or beverage that has more micronutrients (vitamins & minerals) in relation to its energy (kcal)

physiological dose

amount of a nutrient that is within the range of safe intake & enables the body to function properly

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