44 terms

Nutrition Ch. #1

usual pattern of food choices
4 of 10 leading causes of death
life-sustaining substances in food.
components of food required for the body's functioning
scientific study of nutrients & how the body uses them. The science of how food nourishes the body
any substance that the body can take in & assimilate that will enable it to stay alive
study of the composition & characteristics of matter & the changes that can occur to it
smallest functional unit in a living organism
chemical processes that take place in living cells
essential nutrient
nutrient that must be supplied by food
1. missing from body causes deficiency
2. add back & recover
3. science can explain why lack causes problems
deficiency disease
state of health that occurs when a nutrient is missing from the diet
6 classes of nutrients
1. carbs
2. lipids (includes fats)
3. proteins
4. vitamins
5. minerals
6. water
nutrient functions (4)
1. provide energy (main)
2. building material
3. maintenance & repair
4. support growth
4 classes of nutrients that are organic
1. carbs
2. fats
3. proteins
4. vitamins
(organic = contain C-C bonds)
3 classes of nutrients that provide energy
1. carbs
2. fats
3. proteins
substances found in plant foods that are not classified as "nutrients" but are beneficial to health
dietary supplements
-a product that contains a vitamin, mineral, herb or other plant product, AA, or dietary substance that supplements the diet by increasing total intake.
- DSHEA classifies them as food
carbs function
lipids function (4)
1. energy (fat)
2. cellular devel. physical growth & development
3. regulation of body processes
4. absorption of certain vitamins
protein function (4)
1. structural components
2. cellular devel. growth & maintenance
3. regulation of body processes
4. energy
vitamin function (2)
1. regulation of body processes, incl. cell metabolism
2 immune function, production & maintenance of tissues & protection
mineral function
1. regulation of body processes (fluid balance, metabolism, formation of certain chemical messengers, structural & functional components, necessary for physical growth, maintenance & develop
water function
maintenance of fluid balance, body temp, elimination of wastes & transport of substances, participate in many chemical reactions
risk factor
personal characteristic that influences chances of developing disease (ex. genetics, age, environment, etc)
acquired disease
condition that is associated with infections, lifestyle behaviors & diet (ex. heart attack, diabetes, stroke or deficiencies
a person's way of living such as dietary practices, physical activity & use of drugs, smoking, alcohol, sleep, stress)
smoking & alcohol are the only 2 worse than diet
one thousand
one tenth
one hundredth
one thousandth
one millionth
1 inch
2.5 cm
ex. 65" x 2.5 = 162.5cm
1 ounce
1 pound
2.2 pounds
ex. 130lbs/2.2=50kg
kilocalorie or Calorie
measure of food energy
a kilocalorie is the heat energy needed to raise the temp of 1000g of water 1 celsius
primary energy source
carbs, fats, proteins
needed in relatively large amounts
provide energy
ex. carbs, proteins & fats
water needed in large amounts, but not macronutrient b/c doesn't provide energy
carb calories
4 kcal/gram
protein calories
4 kcal/gram
fat calories
9 kcal/gram
alcohol calories
7 kcal/gram
needed in very small amounts
do not provide energy
vitamins & minerals
10 key nutrition concepts
1. most naturally occurring foods are a mixture of nutrients
2. eating a variety of foods helps ensure nutritional adequacy of diet
3. there are no "good" or "bad" foods
4. eat all food in moderation
5. for each nutrient there is a range of safe intakes
6. food is the best source of nutrients & phytochem.
7. no "one size fits all" approach to planning a nutritionally adequate diet
8. foods & the nutrients they contain are not cure alls
9. malnutrition includes "over" & "under"
10. nutrition is a dynamic science
nutrient dense
- a measure of nutrients per calorie
- food or beverage that has more micronutrients (vitamins & minerals) in relation to its energy (kcal)
physiological dose
amount of a nutrient that is within the range of safe intake & enables the body to function properly