26 terms

Nutrition Ch. #2

scientific method
-nutrition experts rely on this to base recommendations
1. observation
2. hypothesis
3. test
possible explanation about an observation that guides scientific research
reports of personal experience
personal characteristic or other factor that changes & can influence an outcome
something you measure (ex. age, location, environ)
laboratory experiments
a systematic way of testing a hypothesis
experimentation: 2 groups
1. treatment group
2. control group
a fake treatment
in vitro
"test tube" experimenting on parts derived from living organism, such as cells
in vivo
testing on whole living organisms, such as mice
is the study of occurrence, distribution, & causes of health problems in population
epidemiological: 2 types
1. experimental
2. observational
experimental epidemiological study
-can obtain information about health conditions that may have resulted from specific dietary practices
2 groups: 1. experimental 2. control (placebo)
observational epidemiological: case-control study
individuals who have a health condition are compared with individuals with similar characteristics who don't have the condition
observational epidemiological: co-hort study
study that measures variables in a group of people over time
-look forward
-follow healthy people into future & look for factors that have changed their health
-look back
-look at peoples past exposures to explain why some have condition & some don't
limitations of epidemiological studies
1. can't establish causation
2. when 2 events or observation occur at the same time cannot assume related
1. a relationship btw variables
2. occurs when 2 variables change over the same period
elements of epidemiological study (7)
1. review scientific literature
2. develop hypothesis
3. design study (double blind)
4. conduct human research
5. analyze data, draw conclusions, report findings
6. spread the news
7. follow up w/more research
-promoting useless medical treatments
-practicing medicine w/o proper training=illegal
-providing nutrition info & advice, w/o training=legal
red flags
1. quick, easy remedies
2. sounds too good to be true
3. scare tactics
4. personal attacks on experts
5. statements on superiority
6. testimonials & anecdotes
7. promotes benefits, doesn't discuss risks
8. vague, meaningless or scientific sounding terms
9. sensational statements
10. recommend based on single study
11. disclaimers
reliable sources
college or university nutrition instructors
registered dietitians
peer reviewed articles
dietary supplements (3)
-adds to a person's dietary intake & contains one or more dietary ingredients, including nutrients or botanicals
-taken by mouth
-is not promoted as a conventional food or the only item of a meal or diet
-regulated as a food
dietary supplements examples
-nutrient pills (multivitamin, mineral products
-protein powders
-herbal extracts
-energy bars
complementary & alternative medicine
-using supplements, such as herbal products, to treat disease or promote good health
-chiropractic manipulations
-homeopathy & naturopathy
-massage therapy
dietary supplement use (2)
-micronutrients generally safe
-herbal supplements may be toxic