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Factors than enhance or block the activity of vitamins and minerals.

Vitamin C

Agonist: Glutathione
Antagonist: Pectin, zinc, higher doses of iron, high intracellular glucose, A single large dose of Ascorbate.

B1 Thiamine

Agonist:Vitamin C,Citric Acid.
Antagonist: Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Alcohol (ethanol).

B2 Riboflavin

Antagonist:CU, Zn, Fe, Mn, alcohol.

B3 Niacin

Antagonist: Alcohol.

B5 Pantothenic Acid

Antagonist: Alcohol.

B6 Pyridoxine

Agonist:Vitamin B2, Zn.
Antagonist: Alcohol.

Folate (Folic Acid)

Agonist: Zn, folate binding proteins (FBP), B3.
Conjugase inhibitors:Lentils , Legumes, Cabbage, Oranges.


Agonist: Lysine, B5, lipoic acid.
Antagonist: Avidin (egg white)

Vitamin A

Agonist:Fat, Vitamin E
Antagonist:Vitamin E (large doses), Fibre

Vitamin D
Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol)
Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)

Agonist:Sunlight, Cholesterol, Vit. B3 & B2, PTH , Low phosphorous levels.
Antagonist:High amounts of phosphorus.

Vitamin E Tocopherols & Tocotrienols

Antagonist:Excess amount of Vit E.

Vitamin K Phylloquinone

Agonist:Fat, bile, pancreatic juices
Antagonist: Warfarin.


Agonist:Food, lactose,sugars, xylitol
Antagonist: Fibre, oxalates, magnesium, low PTH, Unabsorbed Fatty acids, oestrogen deficiency in menopause.


Agonist:Vitamin D,lactose.
Antagonist: Iron, Calcium, Phytates, Fibre, Unabsorbed,Fatty acids.


Agonist: Zinc, Vit D,low Magnesium in lumen.
Antagonist: Magnesium, Calcium, Aluminium.


Agonist:Chloride, glucose, hydrogen, potassium.


Agonist: Methionine, Histidine, Vitamin C
Antagonist: Phytates, heavy metals, antacids.


Agonist:Amino Acids, Organic acids like citric,
gluconic, lactic, acetic, and malic acids, Glutathione.
Antagonist: Zinc, Iron, Phytates, Calcium, Vit C Phosphorus, Molybdenum, Antacids.


Antagonist: Thyroid gland.


Agonist:Vit C, acids, sugars, meat, poultry, fish, mucin
Antagonist: Polyphenols, oxalic acid, phytates, EDTA, phosvitin, nutrients.


Agonist:Ligands - Histidine
Antagonist: Iron, fibre, oxalate, calcium, phosphorus.


Agonist:Vitamin A, C, E, Decreased levels of glutathione in intestinal lumen.
Antagonist:Heavy metals, phytates.


Agonist:Citric acid, picolinic acid, histidine, cysteine, glutathione, tripeptides
Antagonist: Phytates, oxalates, polyphenols, fibre, nutrients such as magnesium, iron, calcium.



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