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disciplines that use the scientific method to examine the social world, in contrast to the natural sciences
level of analysis that studies face-to-face and SMALL-group interactions; focuses on small-scale pieces of society
level of analysis that studies LARGE-scale social structures; focuses on large-scale pieces of society
translates the social world into NUMBERS that can be treated mathematically; often tries to find cause & effect relationships
NON-NUMERICAL data such as texts, field notes, interview transcripts, photographs, and tape recordings
a quality of the MIND that allows us to understand the relationship between our particular situation in life and what is happening at a social level
a sense of disorientation that occurs when one enters a radically new social or cultural environment
has the practical knowledge needed to get through daily life, but not necessarily the scientific or technical knowledge of how things work
studies the social world in a systematic, comprehensive, coherent, clear, and consistent manner in the pursuit of scientific knowledge
describe how radio and television create new kinds of social bonds by bringing people together as if they all belonged to the same tribe
an abstract proposition that explains the social world and makes predictions about future events
procedure for acquiring knowledge that emphasized collecting concrete data through observation and experiment normally used in the study of the physical world, and applied it to the study of social affairs
type of social bond where shared traditions and beliefs created a sense of social cohesion
a social bond based on a division of labor that created interdependence and individual rights
the inevitable result of the dehumanizing features of bureaucracies that dominated modern societies
the large-scale social institutions that make up society (family, education, politics, the economy)
sees social conflict as the basis of society and social change and emphasizes a materialist view of society, a critical view of the status quo, and a dynamic model of historical change
sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interaction
looks at gender inequalities in society and the way that gender structures the social world
proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal
a method based on studying people in their own environment in order to understand the meanings they attribute to their activities
limits possible responses: for example, "Are you for or against couples living together before they are married?"
allows the answer to take whatever form the respondent chooses: "What do you think about couples living together before they are married?"
QUESTIONNAIRES that are administered to a sample of respondents selected from a target population
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