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smallest amount of a nutrient needed to maintain defined level of health

dietary reference intakes (DRI)

-encompass a variety of terms that describe values for energy & nutrient recommendations
-nutrient intake standards set for people living in US & canada
-standards for healthy people's energy & nutrient intakes

DRI: Estimated average requirements (EAR)

average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of HALF of healthy individuals
-used in research & policy making
-used as basis for the RDA

DRI: recommended dietary allowance (RDA)

daily nutrient intake levels that would meet the needs of 97-98% of healthy individuals
-used to set nutrient intake goals for individuals
-add margin of safety to EAR, but not above UL

DRI: adequate intakes (AI)

-used when data is insufficient to set RDA value
-avg. daily nutrient intake level based on nutrient intakes of healthy individuals

DRI: tolerable upper intake levels (UI)

highest avg daily nutrient intake levels that is likely to pose a threat
-used to set max levels
-usual intake above this level could lead to illness

DRI: acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR)

values for intake of carbs, fat & protein expressed as % of total daily caloric intake
-used to set ranges
-levels sufficient to provide energy & nutrients & reduce risk of chronic disease

AMDR level for carbs


AMDR level for fat


AMDR level for protein


nutrient standards function (3)

1. evaluate dietary practices
2. develop certain food products
3. provide standards for nutritional labels (DV)

DRI perspective (6) functions

1. based on available scientific research & is updated
2. based on concepts of probability & risk
3. optimal intakes, not minimum. margin of safety
4. value set in reference to adequacy, not prevention of deficiency
5. values reflect avg intakes over time
6. apply to healthy persons

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

-values are not generous
-avg value so as to maintain body weight & to discourage unhealthy weight gain
-reflects a balance btw food & activity level

daily values DV

-reflect needs of an average person, eating 2000-2500 calories per day
-ensures consumers can compare labels
-not nutrient intake goal unless you fit profile

daily values DV

- US standards used on food labels
- more simplified & practical than RDA
- most based on highest RDA or AI
- not the same as DRI

Major food groups (6)

1. grains
2. milk & milk products
3. meat & meat substititues
4. fruits
5. vegetables
6. oils
7. solid fats & added sugars (limit!)

grains (5)

- made from plants (wheat, rice, oat)
- primarily carbs & proteins
- enriched= iron & certain B vitamins added
- whole grains provide more fiber, vitamins & minerals
- 3oz of whole grain products

milk & milk products (4)

- made from milk that retain calcium
- excellent source of calcium, protein, phosph, & riboflavin
- cream, cream cheese & butter NOT included. they are high fat solid fats
- 3 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent daily

meat & meat substitutes (3)

- pros= excellent source of protein, iron, zinc & B vitamins
- cons=maybe high in saturated fat & cholesterol
- meat substitutes= beans, eggs, nuts & seeds

fruit (4)

-excellent source of phytochemicals, folate, potassium, & vitamin C
-whole or cut up provide more fiber than juice
-most low in fat
-eat variety b/c vary in vitamins & minerals

vegetables (3)

- vary in nutrient & energy content
-often grouped according to color & starch content
-dried peas & bean may be vegetables or meat subs

oils (3)

- fats that are liquids
- include spreadables (mayonnaise, salad dressing & margarine
- some guides include: nuts, olives, avocados & fatty fish

dietary guidelines

- recommendation for 2 years old & over
- promote adequate nutrition & good health
- reduce risk of CVD, obesity, alcoholism & other chronic conditions
-adequate nutrition w/in caloric needs
- variety of nutrient dense foods & beverages
- limit added salts & sugars, alcohols & lipids
- adopt a nutritionally balanced eating plan

dietary guidelines: weight management

match caloric intake w/calories expended for energy

dietary guidelines: physical activity

be physically active on regular basis

physically active: least

30 minutes of moderate activity
ex. hiking, light gardening, dancing, golf, biking, walking, weight lifting, stretching

physically active: prevent weight gain

60 minutes of moderate activity

physically active: weight loss

90 minutes of moderate activity

dietary guidelines: fats (4)

- limit to 20-35% of calories
- pick foods high in unsaturated fats
- consume <10% of calories from unsaturated fats & <300mg of cholesterol daily
-limit trans fat

dietary guidelines: carbs

- increase fiber-rich fruits, vegetables & whole grains
- limit added sugars
- good oral hygiene

dietary guidelines: sodium & potassium

- 1 tsp salt daily
-limit high sodium
- increase potassium intake (fruits & vegetables)

discretionary calorie allowance

-calories remaining after recommended amounts of low-fat/low added sugar foods
- weight maintenance vs. nutrient supplies
-nutrient dense foods

portion sizes: 1 ounce

1/2 to 2/3 cup, ground or chopped/medium fruit

exchange system

-categorizes food into 3 food groups:
1. carbs 2. meat & substitutes 3. fats
-provides exchange lists of specific types of foods
-sorts foods into group by proportion of carbs, fats & proteins
-foods have roughly same energy nutrients (calories) & can be used interchangeably
-describes what type/portion of food is roughly equal to a serving of given calorie amount

exchange system benefits (3)

1. useful for almost everyone
2. estimates values for whole groups of food
3. focus on energy-yielding nutrients

nutrition facts panel

provides information about energy & nutrient contents of packaged foods
-shows % DV
-not on fruits or vegetables

health claims

-FDA allows certain health claims on food labels
-claims describe relationship btw food, ingredient or supplement & the reduced risk of nutrient-related conditions

structure/function claims

-FDA allows structure/function claims such as "calcium builds bones.
-cannot claim a nutrient, food or supplement prevents or treats a serious condition
-legal but unregulated, no prior approval, notification to FDA is sufficient
-required label disclaimer

nutrient content claims

-are regulated ("... free", "...low-fat")

light or lite claims

-compared to reference food=has at least 1/3 fewer calories
-contains at lease 1/2 the fat

natural food claims

-contains no food colorings, synthetic flavors, or other unnatural substances

dietary supplement labels must list (6)

1. ingredients
2. serving size
3. amounts per serving
4. suggested use
5. manufacturers name & address
6. % of DV (if established)

organic food

-produced w/o use of antibiotics, hormones, synthetic fertilizers & pesticides, genetic improvements, or spoilage-killing radiation

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