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39 terms

AP HuG Chapter One Terms

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Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Township
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
Principal Meridians
north-south or longitude lines
Hearth
the region from which innovative ideas originate, orgin
Base Lines
East-West Lines, latitude lines
Sections
smaller divisions of a township
Remote Sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from another long-distance method
Cultural Ecology
the geographic study of human environment relationships
Toponym
name given to a portion of Earth's surface, the name by which a geographical place is known
Site
identifies a place by its unique physical characteristics
Situation
physical position in relation to the surroundings
Environmental Determinism
the focus of how the physical environment causes social development
Formal Region
An area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics, uniform region
Functional Region
an area localized by a node or focal point
Vernacular Region
a place that that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity, perceptual region
Possibilism
the theory that the environment sets certain limitations
Polder
piece of land that is created by draining water from an area
Transnational Corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located, McDonalds, IBM, and Coca-Cola
Arithmetic Density
# of people / land area
Physiological Density
# of people / arable land
Agricultural Density
# of farmers of / land area
Space-Time Compression
the reduction in time that takes something to reach another place
International Date Line
180 degrees longitude, located in the pacific, an imaginary line on the surface of the earth following (approximately) the 180th meridian
Hierarchical Diffusion
spreads from the rich to the poor, eg. prestigious name brands
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
Relocation Diffusion
the spread of an idea through physical movement
Stimulus Diffusion
inventions, spread of an underlying principle of technology
Contagious Diffusion
spreads rapidly from a point by proximity, the closer the more likely it is to spread
Cartography
the making of maps and charts
Map Scale
compares a distance on a map with a distance in the real world, shows the ratio between distances on a map and distances on the earth
Small Scale
shows larger amount of Earth, less detail, zoomed out
Large Scale
shows smaller amount of Earth, more detail, zoomed in
Map Projection
ways of drawing the earth on a flat surface, things that typically become distorted: Shape, Size, Direction, and Distance. SSDD
GIS
geographic information system, a computer system that stores, organizes, retrieves, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Eratosthenes
first person to use the word geography, Greek mathematician and astronomer who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances to the moon and sun (276-194 BC)
spatial association
the concept that the distribution of one phenomenon is scientifically related to the location of other phenomena
spatial distribution
the arrangement of a phenomenon across Earth's surface
dike
converting something to a water source
concentration
the spatial property of being crowded together