Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

What percent of our water is intracellular?
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Terms in this set (91)
Potassium lab value3.5-5 mEq/L (think 3-5 bananas in a bunch)Calcium lab value8.5-10.5Chloride lab value95-105Sodium lab value135-145Controls and regulates volume of body fluidsSodiumchief regulator of cellular enzyme activity and water contentPotassiumNerve impulse, blood clotting, muscle contraction, B12 absorptionCalciumMetabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, vital actions involving enzymesMagnesiumMaintains osmotic pressure in blood, produces hydrochloric acidChlorideBody's primary buffer systemBicarbonateInvolved in important chemical reactions in the body, cell division, and hereditary traitsPhosphateLow amounts of this cause jerking, tremors, neuromuscular irritability tachycardia, and confusionMagnesium (hypomagnesia - less than 1.5)This is commonly found in dark colored drinks, sodas, coffees, teasPhosphateCrucial to cardiac function, helps with conduction of nerve impulses and skeletal muscle activityPotassiumToo much of this will cause tall peaked t-waves, muscle twitching and cramps early on. Muscle weakness and paralysis late.Potassium (hyperkalemia - greater than 5.0)Too little of this will cause flat t-waves or an extra u-wave. Caused by excessive exercise, bodily fluid loss, extreme heat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, laxatives, steroids.Potassium (hypokalemia - less than 3.5)Bananas, oranges, tomatoes, potatoes, and avocadoes are foods high in what?PotassiumWhat needs to be taken with calcium in order for it to be absorbed?Vitamin DToo much of this will cause decreased muscle contraction, slow GI function, lower deep tendon reflexes, lethargy, bone pain, cardiac dysrhythmias, and eventual cardiac arrestCalcium (hypercalcemia - greater than 10.5)What do people often have who take an excess of OTC tums?hypercalcemiaToo little of this causes increased muscle contraction, spasms, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, cardiac dysrhythmias, and tetanyCalcium (hypocalcemia - less than 8.5)What are the two classic signs of hypocalcemia?Chvostek's Sign and Trousseau's SignWhat is Chvostek's Sign?Facial twitching when tapping on facial nerve.What is Trousseau's Sign?Carpal pedal spasms - can be seen when applying a blood pressure cuff.Directly impacts fluid balance and muscle functions. Directly effects central nervous system. Most abundant in bloodstream.SodiumToo little of this means there is more water than there is sodium. Caused by diuretics, diarrhea, renal disease, CHFSodium (hyponatremia - less than 135)Too much of this means there is more sodium than water. Caused by dehydration, fever, diabetes insipidus, Cushing's disease, extensive exercise.Sodium (hypernatremia - greater than 145)Which gland regulates calcium levels in ECF?ParathyroidNormal pH7.35-7.45Less than 7.35 pHAcidosisGreater than 7.45 pHAlkalosisNormal PaCO245-35Greater than 45 PaCO2AcidosisLess than 35 PaCO2AlkalosisNormal HCO3 range22-26Less than 22 HCO3AcidosisGreater than 26 HCO3AlkalosisNot enough CO2?Respiratory alkalosisToo much CO2?Respiratory acidosisLoss of bicarbonate?Metabolic acidosisToo much bicarbonate?Metabolic alkalosisTerm relating to HCO3?MetabolicTerm relating to PaCO2?RespiratoryCaused by asthma, CHF, COPD. Will have Kussmaul's breathing pattern. Deep, rapid, labored.Respiratory acidosisHyperventilation is the primary cause. Seen in head injuries and people in pain.Respiratory alkalosisCaused by diarrhea, diabetic keto acidosis, increase in lactic acid.Metabolic acidosisCaused by prolonged nausea and vomiting, too much NG suctioning, urinary loss, diaresis, hypokalemia.Metabolic alkalosisSubstance containing a hydrogen ion that can be liberated or releasedAcidCondition characterized by a proportionate excess of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid, in which the pH falls below 7.35Acidosisthe movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.Active transportCondition, characterized by a proportionate lack of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid concentration, in which the pH exceeds 7.45Alkalosision that carries a negative electric chargeAnionsimmunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigenAntibodyForeign material capable of inducing a specific immune responseAntigenOccurs when a patient donates one's own blood for a transfusionAutologous transfusionSubstance that can accept or trap a hydrogen ion; synonym for alkaliBaseThe laboratory examination to determine a person's blood typeBlood typingSubstance that prevents body fluid from becoming overly acid or alkalineBufferPassage of fluid across the wall of the capillary; results form the force of blood "pushing" against the walls of the capillariesCapillary filtrationIon that carries a positive electric chrageCationPressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressureColloid osmotic pressureAct of determining the compatibility of two blood specimensCross-matchingDecreased water volume in body tissueDehydrationtendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is establishedDiffusionAccumulation of fluid in extracellular spacesEdemaSubstance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electric charge when dissolved in solutionElectrolytesFluid outside the cells; includes intravascular and interstitial fluidsExtracellular fluid (ECF)Force exerted by a fluid against the container wallHydrostatic pressuureHaving a greater concentration than the solution with which is being comparedHypertonicExcess of plasmaHypervolemiahaving a lesser concentration than the solution with which it is being comparedHypotonicDeficiency of blood plasmaHypovolemiaFluid within the cell; synonym for cellular fluidIntracellular fluid (ICF)Atom or molecule carrying an electric charge in solutionIonhaving about the same concentration as the solution with which it is being comparedIsotonicConcentration of particles in a solution, or a solution's pulling powerOsmolarityThe passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lesser concentration to an area of higher concentration isOsmosisExpression of hydrogen ion concentration and resulting acidity of a substancepHsubstance dissolved in a solutionSoluteLiquid holding a substance in a solutionSolventAcronym to remember order of nutrients and their increasing lab valuesMy Photographic Potato Came Crashing Sideways (Mg 1.5-2.5, P 2.5-4.5, K 3.5-5, Ca 8.5-10.5, Cl 95-105, Na 135-145)