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Unit 8 - Imperialism & Nationalism
Terms in this set (78)
What is the definition of imperialism?
One group takes over the territory of another group and dominates them politically, socially and economically.
What's the key difference between colonization and imperialism?
With colonization it was more about one group establishing themselves in a new place more than taking over and dominating other groups of people.
Why did imperialism develop when it did?
What two main things did countries who imperialized hope to get from it?
Access to raw materials and markets for selling goods.
Where in the world does John Green say we usually focus when thinking about 19th Century imperialism?
List three factors that made it possible for Europeans to colonize Africa.
Technology - Guns, steams ships to travel inland, and quinine medicine.
What did "rule through and by the natives" mean?
Using native leaders to help manage territory rather than always someone from Europe. (Indirect Rule)
Why might native princes and landowners put up with European imperialism the way they did?
It meant they still had and exercised a degree of power; also prestige and benefits
As late as 1880, roughly 90% of Africa was independent & free from outside influence. True or False?
True (90% was free from outside influence)
What obstacles did Europe face that kept them from having more influence in Africa until the late 1800s?
Powerful African armies, rivers that couldn't be navigated and Africa controlled trading
What region of Africa really spurred on European imperialism in Africa first?
Why were African leaders in the Congo region willing to hand power and control of the region to King Leopold II of Belgium; what were they promised?
End slave trade
Work life for people living in the Congo region improved dramatically after Leopold II took over. True or false?
False - work life stayed the same or got worse
What were the only 2 places in Africa that remained independent of European control by 1914?
Liberia & Abyssnia (Ethiopia)
How is racism defined?
Belief that one race is superior or inferior to another race
How did a "Social Darwinist" perspective fit with the rise of imperialism?
Provided the justification to take over somewhere or something
Technology, and advances in technology more specifically, had an impact on imperialism happening when it did. True of False?
What long-time obstacle to getting into the interior of Africa did steamships help to overcome?
What type of opportunity was improved with the addition of rail and telegraph lines in Africa?
For what illness did Quinine help control the symptoms?
What European concern led to the Berlin Conference?
Fear of war among European countries
African leaders were allowed to participate in the Berlin Conference. True or False?
False - African leaders were not invited
Which southern African group was most successful at resisting outside groups?
When did the Dutch begin to be a presence in southern Africa?
When did the English begin to become a presence in southern Africa?
Which direction did the Dutch "boers" move after the English started to arrive in the region?
The Zulu had the advantage of greater numbers, the English had the advantage of greater technology. True or False?
True - English had greater technology not numbers
How was England able to win the Battle of Rorke's Drift?
What resources were found in Dutch land that led to fighting over territory between the English and the Dutch?
What was created after all the conflict in the southern Africa that occurred in the 1800s to the early 1900s?
The country of South Africa was created.
Where did the loyalty people begin to shift to that represented a move to nationalism; what had people been loyal to and where did their loyalty shift?
were loyal to a king and shifted to be loyal to a nation of people
The more ways people felt connected to each other, the stronger feelings of nationalism tend to be. True or false?
What led to the formation of nation-states?
nationalism/ people who felt connected; wanted government to reflect it.
The more common experiences people share together, the stronger their bonds with each other tend to be. True or false?
The national language of the United States is English. True or false?
If people share a common faith it can serve to strengthen feelings of nationalism. True or false?
What is John Green's definition of the modern nation-state?
A nation-state has a centralized gov't that can claim and exercise authority over a distinctive territory. It tends to have a common language and culture.
Name the main government of Japan that began in 1603 and lasted over 250 years.
Tokugawa bakufu (Shogunate)
What were the steps taken by the Emperor of Meji Japan that helped unify Japan?
Abolished the bakufu (or Tokugawa Shogunate); European-style gov't; German-style army; mandatory education
What confederation of countries was Prussia a member of after the Napoleonic years were over?
The German Confederation
Which of the following were advantages that Prussia had relative to other German states?
powerful army, industrialized, had a predominately German population
The response in Prussia to the 1848 uprisings was to develop a liberal constitution.
What did Prussia having a "liberal constitution" actually mean for the Prussian government structure?
There was a blend of power the king really had, and the power of a legislative body.
King Wilhelm I lacked ambition, and his rise to the throne in the 1860's signaled a time in Prussia was the parliament held all the power.
Who supported King Wilhelm and his ambitions in Prussia?
Ministers, Army officers, Junkers
What position did Otto von Bismarck hold in the Prussian government?
Which of the following best describes the concept of Realpolitik?
If something needs to happen it needs to happen. Period.
Austria was a strong German state at the time Prussia was looking to expand it's influence.
How was Bismarck able to create a conflict with Austria but make it look like Austria was the aggressor?
After war with Denmark, Prussia made shared management of territory they had won with Austria so annoying that Austria declared war.
What came from Prussia's victory over Austria, something that was a nice step toward a unified Germany?
The creation of the North German Confederation.
How was Prussia able to get France to attack, which made France the aggressor?
A fake telegram was published that appeared insulting to France, which upset France enough to declare war.
When was Germany unified, a point where Wilhelm I take the title of Kaiser?
Opium, for recreational use, was legal in China.
Who helped Britain actually get the opium into China?
A combination of some Chinese officials and merchants.
Why did China lose the Opium War?
They couldn't compete with Britain's modern weapons.
What did Britain gain as a result of the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842?
British people in China were only subject to British laws, no longer had to pay tariffs to China, gained access to five key ports for trade.
Historically, China has generally been an isolated, self-sufficient country. True or false?
China always yielded to the terms and demands of the other country. True or false?
Why did England begin to sell opium to China?
They notice a high dependence of opium in the country and they take advantage of that.
Why did the Opium war happen?
England didn't stop smuggling; was persistent and didn't respond
How did the Opium wars end; Who won and what did it get them?
England won, got them upset, their government was powerless.
What was the "fancy" name for The Boxers?
Society of Harmonious Fists
The Boxers believed they were invincible. True or False?
The Boxer's would be victorious in the "Boxer Rebellion."
Despite the loss in the Boxer Rebellion, how can it be viewed as a positive moving forward?
What is the "proper" name for the Boxers?
the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists.
What irritated the Chinese people the most by the mid 1800s?
The Boxers were supported by local leaders in the Shantung province were they operated.
The empress of China, Cixi, did NOT support the Boxers, and actively tried to shut them down.
When would the Qing Dynasty be overthrown?
What did Japan get from isolation that was positive for them?
do what they wanted w/o interference
What was the purpose of US commodore Perry's visit to Japan?
seeking trade arrangements
Why did Japan agree to the Treaty of Kanagawa that opened up trade between our countries?
poweless; not advanced enough to compete
What type of leader was the Shogun?
What was the period of Emperor Mutsuhito's rule known as, and what does that mean?
Meji Era = Enlightened rule
Japan would try to learn fro the 'West" to help overcome their weaknesses and become equals to the powerful countries. True or false?
What did Japan try to copy from what they saw in the United States?
Clothing to Industrial Techniques
One area where Japan failed to make up ground with western countries was with industrialization. True or false?
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