21 terms

Apologia Chemistry Module 15

chemical equilibrium
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Chemical equilibrium
The point at which both the forward and reverse reactions in a chemical equation have equal reaction rates.

When this occurs, the amounts of each substance in the chemical reaction will not change, despite the fact that both reactions still proceed.
Equilibrium constant (K)
K = [C]^c[D]^d/[A]^a[B]^b

concentrations are those at equilibrium
When K is large, the equilibrium is weighted towards the _______
products
When K is small, the equilibrium is weighted towards the _______
reactants
When K is near unity, the equilibrium is
balanced between products and reactants
The concentration of a solid is _______
constant
The concentration of a liquid is _______
constant

(only in the liquid phase, not aqueous)
Le Chatelier's Principle
When a stress is applied to an equilibrium, the reaction will shift in a way that relieves the stress and restores equilibrium.
When an equilibrium is subjected to an increase in pressure, it will shift (away, toward) the side with the largest number of gas molecules.
away
When an equilibrium is subjected to an decrease in pressure, it will shift (away, toward) the side with the largest number of gas molecules.
toward
When temperature is raised, an equilibrium will shift (toward, away) from the side of the equation that contains energy.
away
When temperature is lowered, an equilibrium will shift (toward, away) from the side of the equation that contains energy/
toward
Acid ionization reaction
The reaction in which an H⁺ separates from an acid molecule so that it can be donated in another eaction
Acid ionization constant (Ka)
The equilibrium constant for an acid's ionization reaction
A strong acid has a (small, large) Ka
large
A weak acid has a (small, large) Ka
small
pH
potential hydrogen

the concentration of H⁺ in a solution
Every 1 unit of change on the pH scale represents a _______ change in acidity
tenfold
The pH range for acids is ...
0 - 6.9
The ph range for bases is ...
7.1 - 14
Neutral pH is ...
7
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