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Unit 2 - Introduction to Mobile Apps & Pair Programming
Terms in this set (78)
a general representation of something -- of some person or place or event or process. An abstraction extracts common features from specific examples in order to generalize concepts. Words, symbols, maps, and models are all examples of everyday abstractions.
a precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be implemented by a programming language and executed by a computer.
a circuit with two inputs and one output defined such that its output is TRUE (or ON) only when both of its inputs are TRUE (or ON).
the number of distinct digits or symbols used to represent numbers in that system. Our decimal system is base-10 because it uses 10 digits, 0 through 9.
binary number system
number system in which all numbers are represented in terms of the 2 binary digits, 0 and 1.
a sequence of 0s and 1s.
a single binary digit, either 0 or 1. It is the smallest unit of data in a computer.
In internet terminology, a blacklist is a generic term for a list of email addresses or IP addresses for organizations that known to be spammers.
condition is a true/false condition. It is named after George Boole (1815-1864) an English mathematician.
a program that displays web pages and is used to navigate the WWW.
A group of eight binary digits or bits.
any symbol that requires one byte of storage.
an informal way of describing an integrated circuit (IC) consisting of millions of tiny circuits.
The process of translating the entire source code into a single binary file.
a machine that processes information under the control of a program.
includes a program as an integral part of its function. Can be physical, non-physical computing software, or non-physical computing concepts. For example, self-driving cars, picture editing software, e-commerce, a mobile app
such as the numeral '5', is an abstraction that represents a single thing, e.g., the value 5.
a block of programming statements that controls the flow or behavior of an algorithm.
that part of the computer's hardware that carries out the instructions of a computer program.
a metaphor for describing the non-physical terrain created by computer systems.
the distinct information that is formatted in a special way. Exists in a variety of forms, like text on paper or bytes stored in electronic memory.
the practice of organizing and encapsulating certain data into a more general representation. An example would be storing the text 'hello' in a single variable rather than having numerous occurrences of 'hello' in a program.
a physical or virtual infrastructures used by enterprises to house computer, server and networking systems and components for the company's IT (information technology) needs.
a telecommunications network which allows computers to exchange data.
decimal number system
a base-10 system that we use every day, consisting of the symbols 0 through 9.
a randomly addressable and rewritable storage device.
A block of code that reacts to an event like a button click.
the program is activated by events such as button clicks.
a digital circuit that has two states, ON or OFF, that can be used to store a 1 or a 0. It is the fundamental unit of computer memory.
a visual (i.e. graphical) notation for expressing algorithms.
general purpose computer
can run many different programs (e.g. a smartphone).
includes its electronic and mechanical components that carries out the instructions of a computer program.
hexadecimal number system
a base-16 system, consisting of the 16 symbols 0 through 9 and A through F.
high level language
a programming language that is human readable (App Inventor) and provides the programmer with easy to understand abstractions.
A component used to display a group of components laid out from left to right.
the protocol that controls the behavior of the WWW.
software that provides comprehensive tools for programming such as UI design, code editing, and a way to interpret and run the program.
develops and oversees open standards such as HTTP (www) and SMTP (mail).
Selection or conditional algorithm that allows a program to choose between different actions.
data sent to a computer for processing by a program and can be tactile, audible, visual, or text
informally, a chip, is an electronic circuit formed on a small piece of semiconducting material, that integrates billions of tiny transistors and logic gates.
refers to any property that is created using original thought. Traditional intellectual property include patents, copyrights, and trademarks.
the global public network of independent and autonomous networks that are governed by the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP
The process of translating source code into machine language one instruction at a time and immediately executing instruction.
another term for 'repetition'
an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Examples would be AND, OR, and NOT gates that perform basic digital operations.
a programming language that is directly readable by the computer's CPU.
the projection that the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits will rougly double every year since the integrated circuit was invented.
houses the computer's main electronic components.
a group of two or more computer systems linked together.
a circuit with one input and one output defined such that its output is TRUE (or ON) when its input is FALSE (or OFF) and vice versa.
octal number system
a base-8 system, consisting of the symbols 0 through 7.
a standard (such as TCP, HTTP) that is not owned or controlled by a private entity. It stands in contrast to 'proprietary' materials', which are owned or controlled by a private entity. Open Standards fuel the growth of the Internet!
a circuit with two inputs and one output defined such that its output is TRUE (or ON) when either or both of its inputs are TRUE (or ON).
data sent back from the program to the device and can be tactile, audible, visual, or text.
an error that occurs when the computer attempts to handle a number that is outside of the defined range of values can be represented
positional number system
such as our decimal system, the value of a digit in a number depends on its place. For example, in the decimal number 545, the leftmost '5' represents 500 because it occurs in the hundreds place, but the rightmost '5' represents 5 because it occurs in the ones place.
in computer science is the practice of organizing and encapsulating algorithms in named procedures that can then be invoked by name. An example would be the 'sqrt(x)', square root of x, which encapsulates the algorithm for calculating the square root of x.
a shorthand way of referring to a microprocessor or CPU.
a sequence of instructions that controls the computer.
a system of rules that govern the behavior of some system.
a notation for expressing algorithms, which is more precise that ordinary English but less formal than a programming language.
stores the computer's programs and data temporarily while power is on.
control structure is the repetition of an algorithm for a specified number of times or until a true/false condition is met.
control structure uses a true or false condition to determine which of two parts of an algorithm is used.
control structure is the application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the statements are given.
a social structure made of nodes that are generally individuals or organizations. A social network represents relationships and flows between people, groups, organizations, animals, computers, or other information/knowledge processing entities.
consists of the programs that control the computer.
special purpose computer
has a fixed program (e.g. a simple calculator, a digital watch, a car's anti-lock braking system).
the suite a protocols that determine the behavior of the Internet.
invented the World Wide Web (WWW).
a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. Transistors are the fundamental building blocks of electronic devices.
Parts of the user interface such as Buttons, Labels, etc.
Actions by the user such as button clicks.
The part of computer application through which a user interacts with a program.
can be used to represent any number and is therefore more general and more abstract than a constant, such as the symbol 'X'.
is a generic name for a list of email address or IP addresses that are considered to be spam free.
World Wide Web
an Internet application of interlinked web pages based on the HTTP protocol.
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A page-replacement algorithm should minimize the number of page faults. We can achieve this minimization by distributing heavily used pages evenly over all of memory, rather than having them compete for a small number of page frames. We can associate with each page frame a counter of the number of pages associated with that frame. Then, to replace a page, we can search for the page frame with the smallest counter. a. Define a page-replacement algorithm using this basic idea. Specifically address these problems: i. What is the initial value of the counters? ii. When are counters increased? iii. When are counters decreased? iv. How is the page to be replaced selected? b. How many page faults occur for your algorithm for the following reference string with four page frames? 1, 2,3, 4, 5, 3, 4, 1, 6, 7, 8, 7, 8, 9, 7, 8, 9, 5, 4, 5, 4, 2. c. What is the minimum number of page faults for an optimal page replacement strategy for the reference string in part b with four page frames?
Suppose that an algorithm uses only comparisons to find the i th smallest element in a set of n elements. Show that it can also find the i - 1 smaller elements and the n - i larger elements without performing any additional comparisons.
Consider a file system in which a file can be deleted and its disk space reclaimed while links to that file still exist. What problems may occur if a new file is created in the same storage area or with the same absolute path name? How can these problems be avoided?
Assume that a = 5, b = 2, and c = 3. What problem do you encounter when attempting to evaluate the following Boolean expression? (a = 1) AND (b = 2) OR (c = 3). How can this problem be solved?