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Science
Computer Science
Algorithms
Unit 5 - Algorithms & Procedural Abstraction
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Terms in this set (23)
arguments
specify the values of the parameters when a procedure is called.
binary search
a search algorithm that repeatedly divides a sorted list to narrow in on the searched-for item
brute force
solve by trial and error; trying every possible option
decidable problems
problems in which an algorithm can be constructed to answer 'yes' or 'no' for all inputs (e.g., 'is the number even?').
decision problem
a problem that has a yes or no answer
distributed computing
a computational model in which multiple networked computers are used to run a program
efficiency
how well an algorithm uses time and memory/space resources, CPU and RAM.
heuristic algorithm
finds an approximate solution for a hard problem; helpful for finding a solution in a reasonable amount of time
instance of a problem
includes specific input. For example, sorting is a problem, and sorting the list (2,3,1,7) is an instance of the problem.
intractable problems
practically impossible to solve in a <b
linear or sequential search
an algorithm that checks ever element in a list from the start to the end of the list to find an item.
more efficient
this usually means it runs faster or uses less space.
optimization problem
the goal of finding the best solution among many
parallel computing
a computational model where a problem or program is broken into multiple smaller sequential computing operations some of which are performed simultaneously in parallel. This is usually on one computer with multiple processors, but it could also use multiple computers
parameters
are input variables for a procedure.
reasonable time
polynomial time
sequential computing
a computational model in which operations are performed in order, one at a time on one processor or computer
sorting algorithm
puts a list into alphabetic or numeric order.
speedup
For a parallel solution, this is measured in the time it took to complete the task sequentially divided by the time it took to complete the task when done in parallel
The Halting Problem
The undecidable problem of determining whether a computer program will produce an answer at some point or loop forever on a given input
The Traveling Salesman Problem
Given a list of cities and the distances between them find the shortest path visiting each city once and returning to the start.
undecidable problems
have no algorithm that can be constructed that always leads to a correct yes-or-no answer
unreasonable time
exponential time
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Verified questions
COMPUTER SCIENCE
Show that the collection of Turing-recognizable languages is closed under the operation of $^\mathrm{A}{\mathrm{a}}$. b. concatenation. c. star. d. intersection. e. homomorphism.
COMPUTER SCIENCE
Modify the Chaos program so that it prints out 20 values instead of 10.
COMPUTER SCIENCE
In physics, an object that is in motion is said to have kinetic energy. The following formula can be used to determine a moving object’s kinetic energy: $K E=1 / 2 m v^{2}$ The variables in the formula are as follows: KE is the kinetic energy, m is the object’s mass in kilograms, and v is the object’s velocity, in meters per second. Write a function named kineticEnergy that accepts an object’s mass (in kilograms) and velocity (in meters per second) as arguments. The function should return the amount of kinetic energy that the object has. Demonstrate the function by calling it in a program that asks the user to enter values for mass and velocity.
COMPUTER SCIENCE
A method that changes the state of an object is called a(n) a) stator b) mutator c) constructor d) changor