Used to show self-defense, perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and recreational activities
Causes an increase in muscle tension or muscle work but no shortening or active movement
Lateral S- or C-shaped spinal column with vertebral rotation, unequal heights of hips and shoulders
Congential hip dysplasia
Hip instability with limited abduction of hips and, occasionally, adduction contractures (head of femur does not articulate with acetabulum because of abnormal shallowness of acetabulum)
95%: medial deviation and plantar flexion of foot (equinovarus) 5%: lateral deviation and dorsiflexion (calcaneovalgus)
Damage to component of the central nervous system that regulates voluntary movement results in
impaired body alignment, balance, and mobility
Identify the obJectives of bed rest.
a. Reducing physical activity and the oxygen needs of the body
b. Reducing pain, including postoperative pain or after acute injury, to the lower back
c. Allowing ill or debilitated clients to rest
d. Allowing exhausted clients the opportunity for uninterrupted rest
Identify the complications of immobility in relation to the metabolic functioning of the body
decreases the metabolic rate; alters the metabolism of CHO, fats, and proteins; causes fluid and electrolyte and calcium imbalances; and causes GI disturbances
increase in heart rate of more than 15% and a drop of 15 mm Hg or more in SBP
accumulation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery that occludes the lumen of the vessel
Identify the complications of immobility in , relation to the musculoskeletal system
a. loss of endurance, strength, and muscle mass and decreased stability and balance
b. impaired calcium metabolism
c. impaired joint mobility
e. joint contractures
Identify the complications of immobility in relation to the urinary system.
a. urinary stasis (renal pelvis fills before urine enters the ureters)
b. renal calculi (calcium stones that lodge in the renal pelvis)
Identify the psychosocial effects that occur with immobilization
a. emotional and behavioral responses
b. sensory alterations
c. changes in coping
Range of Motion (ROM)
39. is the maximum amount of movement available at a joint in one of the three planes of the body: sagittal, frontal, or transverse
Exercise and activity tolerance
physical activity for conditioning the body, improving health, and maintaining fitness
Ust the actual or potential nursing diagnoses related to an immobilized or partially immobilized client.
1. ineffective airway clearance
2. ineffective individual coping
3. risk for injury
4. impaired skin integrity
5. disturbed sleep pattern
6. social isolation
7. impaired urinary elimination
List the expected outcomes for the goal "client skin remains intact"
a. skin color and temperature return to normal baseline within 20 minutes of position change
b. changes position at least every 2 hours
Identify some examples of health promotion activities that address mobility and immobility
a. prevention of work-related injury
b. fall prevention measures
d. early detection of scoliosis
Identify the nursing interventions that will reduce the impact of immobility on Metabolic Systems
a. a high caloric diet
b. vitamin B and C supplements
Identify the nursing interventions that will reduce the impact of immobility on Respiratory system
a. deep breathe and cough every 1-2 hours
b. CPT c. ensure intake of 2000 mL of fluid per day
Identify the nursing interventions that will reduce the impact of immobility on Cardiovascular system
a. deep breathe and cough every 1-2 hours
c. ensure intake of 2000 mL of fluid per day
Identify the nursing interventions that will reduce the impact of immobility on Musculoskeletal system
a. perform active and passive ROM exercises
b. CPM machines
Identify the nursing interventions that will reduce the impact of immobility on Integumentary system
a. positioning and skin care
b. use of therapeutic devices to relieve pressure
Identify the nursing interventions that will reduce the impact of immobility on Elimination system
b. prevent urinary stasis and calculi and infections
Identify the nursing interventions that will reduce the impact of immobility on Psychosocial
a. anticipate change in the client's status and provide routine and informal socialization
b. stimuli to maintain client's orientation
allows the client to pull with the upper extremities to raise the trunk off the bed, assist in transfer, or to perform exercises
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
Are activities beyond ADLs that are necessary to be independent in society
Describe how you would assist clients with hemiplegia or hemiparesis
Always stand on the client's affected side and support the client by using a gait belt.
Identify the evaluative measures in mobility
the client's ability to maintain or improve body alignment, improve mobility; protect the client from the hazards of immobility
Abnormal and usually permanent condition of a joint, characterized by flexion and fixation and caused by disuse, atrophy, and shortening of muscle fibers.
Measures of height, weight, and skinfold thickness to evaluate muscle atrophy.
A decline is bone density that is associated with impaired mobility or immobilization of an extremity because of fracture, paralysis, or bone or joint inflammation.
A foreign object, a quantity of air or gas, a bit of tissue or tumor, or a piece of thrombus that circulates in the bloodstream until it becomes lodged in a vessel.
negative nitrogen balance
Condition occurring when the body excretes more nitrogen than it takes in.
Body mechanics are the coordinated efforts of the
musculoskeletal and nervous systems as the person moves, lifts, bends, stands, sits, lies down, and completes daily activities
Findings from evidence-based nursing research about safe client handling prevents
injuries to nurses and clients when moving and transferring clients
The skeletal system provides bony support structure for
movement, attachment of ligaments and muscles, protection of vital organs, some of the regulation of calcium, and production of red blood cells.
Coordination and regulation of muscle groups depend on
muscle tone; activity of antagonistic, synergistic, and antigravity muscles; and neural input to muscles
Body alignment is the condition of
joints, tendons, ligaments, and muscles in various body positions.
Balance occurs when there is a wide base of
support, the center of gravity falls within the base of support, and a vertical line falls from the center of gravity through the base of support.
Developmental stages influence
body alignment and mobility; the greatest impact of physiological changes on the musculoskeletal system is observed in children and older adults.
The risk of disabilities related to immobilization depends on
on the extent and duration of immobilization and the client's overall level of health.
The nursing process and critical thinking assist in providing
care for clients who are experiencing or are at risk for the adverse effects of impaired body alignment and immobility.
Clients with impaired body alignment require nursing interventions to
maintain them in the supported Fowler's, supine, prone, side-lying, and Sims' positions.
Appropriate friction-reducing assistive devices and mechanical lifts need to be used for
client transfers when applicable.
No-lift policies benefit
all members of the health care system: clients, nurses, and administration.