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Human Development Exam Ch 5-8
Terms in this set (75)
"Amygdala brain structure"
"Rianna 11 months old.."
"Piaget referred ages 2-6..."
"MOST teacher directed..."
"left side notices ___ right side notices ___..."
the details; emotions
"According to theory-theory..."
theorize that the irrelevant behavior must be
"Which strategy predicts reading achievement..."
"Which statement..exposure to stress..."
some stress but not too much
"Humans seek reasons..."
"Leroy...teacher directed preschool"
working on a long-term
"When children assume the world is unchanging"
allows children to think in symbols
"According to Vygotsky's theory"
"4 year old Colin..."
focus on appearance
"Studies of maltreated children..."
permanently damage brain pathways
"between the ages of 2 and 6...well nourished"
4-5 ; 3
_____ is a major problem decay
The specialization of the functioning of the two halves of the brain is called:
Based on what you know about the immaturity of the amygdala in early childhood, what is a likely experience that many young children have?
A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called
theory of mind.
Knowledge of _____ is essential for learning how to speak, read, and write.
Language shift occurs when _____ leads children to conclude that their first language is inferior to another one.
Dave has a ball of Silly Putty. His 6-year-old son, Mason, watches as Dave flattens the Silly Putty into a thin "pancake." When Dave asks Mason if there is now more Silly Putty, Mason replies "Yes" because he has:
not mastered the concept of conservation
The characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing changes is called:
Yuri is the mother of 3-year-old Decha. Yuri shows Decha two equal balls of Play-Doh and determines that he views them as both the same. She then rolls one of the balls into a long "snake" and asks Decha if the amounts of clay are still the same or if one is different. Decha replies, "The snake has more Play-Doh now!" Decha's reply indicates that he does not yet understand:
Only after a child has developed theory of mind can he or she:
tell a lie
Brianna understands that her father is crying because his best friend died. This shows that Brianna has developed:
theory of mind.
A child's ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly is called
According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:
interacts with a mentor to accomplish a task.
What was Maria Montessori's objective when she created her preschool?
After seeing her new haircut for the first time, Tamara began crying inconsolably. She cried, "You turned me into a boy!" Tamara's statement is an example of:
a focus on appearance.
Dexter, age 4, speaks differently to his baby sister than to his teacher. This indicates that he understands some of the practical uses of language. Dexter is developing an understanding of:
In neuroscience terms, neurons have two types of impulses
Studies of maltreated children suggest that excessive stress-hormone levels in early childhood
permanently damage brain pathways
The idea that child maltreatment is rare and perpetuated by disturbed strangers:
has been disproved by research.
Which theory states that gender role differences are rooted in a basic urge to reproduce?
Which theory focuses on how children learn acceptable behaviors for their gender?
With respect to child maltreatment, permanency planning is a _____ level of prevention.
Debra is 3 years old and says frequently that she wants to "marry daddy." According to psychoanalytic theory, this is a manifestation of:
the Electra complex.
Danielle hired an expert to help her "baby-proof" her house for her increasingly mobile toddler. The expert emphasized that when striving to protect toddlers from injury, it is important to think about _____ instead of _____.
injury control; accident prevention
When would a time-out be the MOST effective discipline strategy?
if the child enjoys being with other people
Emotional regulation is also referred to as:
Four-year-old Amelia wants to play with her brother Tom's trucks. Tom is 6, and he tells her she can't play with them because she's a girl. Tom's refusal is based on his:
Annelle's usual bedtime is 8:30 P.M., and her parents enforce this rule. One evening, Annelle is watching an educational program that ends at 9 P.M. She asks her parents if she can stay up to watch the end of the show. Her parents agree to let her stay up as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. Which parenting style are Annelle's parents demonstrating?
At preschool, 4-year-old Mark rarely joins his peers at play. Instead, he tends to carefully observe his classmates as they transition from one play center to the next. According to Mildred Parten, Mark is engaged in _____ play.
What is the hallmark of prosocial behavior?
It is done to help another without any benefit for oneself.
At what age does any specific disease overtake accidents as a cause for human mortality?
A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is:
Erikson called the psychosocial developmental stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age:
initiative versus guilt.
Developmentalists who focus on children's thinking about gender roles as opposed to the children's observable behaviors are _____ theorists.
The MOST common discipline technique for a child's misbehavior that North American parents use with preschool children is:
Freud's term for the formation of a conscience that internalizes parental morals is:
James sees his friends Evan and Liam playing a quiet game of blocks. James wants to engage in some rough-and-tumble play, so he grabs one of the blocks and runs a few feet away, looking over his shoulder and displaying a play face. How are Evan and Liam likely to respond?
They will chase James and play wrestle.
Many developmentalists believe that _____ is the most productive as well as the most enjoyable activity that children undertake.
Tim, age 5, describes himself as a good soccer player with black hair who laughs a lot. Tim's description demonstrates his developing:
Psychological control as a means of discipline relies on a child's:
feelings of shame, guilt, and gratitude.
Age 40 is notable because it is the first age at which:
any specific disease overtakes accidents as a cause for human mortality.
According to Erikson's theory, which factor(s) help(s) young children demonstrate initiative?
neurological maturity and a longer attention span
A child's cognitive understanding of sex differences would be his or her:
The four dimensions of a parenting style described by Diana Baumrind are warmth, discipline, communication, and:
expectations for maturity
Skye frequently plays the piano whenever her family has guests because she enjoys the praise and attention that she receives. When alone, however, Skye rarely plays the piano. Skye's motivation:
is mostly extrinsic.
Mildred Parten described play as:
_____ makes children believe that they will be good at anything they try to do.
Which of these is an example of "secondary prevention"?
not rushing a child
As a father, Aiden rates low on nurturance and communication and high on maturity demands. He exhibits the _____ style of parenting.
Alanna is a nurturing parent and has good communication with her children, whom she never disciplines. Her parenting style is:
When parents frequently remind their children of their positive accomplishments, it is common for children to develop:
Which scenario BEST illustrates prosocial behavior?
Bethany feeds her baby brother because her mother is sick
Instead of accident prevention, health workers prefer the term:
Which strategy is MOST effective in preventing injury in young children?
laws mandating primary prevention
Tamy, Marla, and Maria are playing dress-up. They are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. What type of play are the three girls engaging in?
Which scenario BEST demonstrates the behaviorist theory regarding gender development?
Christine wears a dress, and her parents tell her how pretty she looks.
The individual MOST likely to have grown up with permissive parents is:
Raul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.
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