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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Terms in this set (56)
First Continental Congress
1774; response to Intolerable Acts; 55 men from 12 colonies meet on Philadelphia; called for complete halt in trade with Britain; important step towards independence.
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Hated on monarchy and the king
Second Continental Congress
1775: They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
1776, Richard Henry Lee of VA intro'ed a resolution declaring the colonies to be independent; Thomas Jefferson listed specific grievances against George III's government and expressed basic principles that justified revolution; adopted July 2nd by Congressed but issued July 4th
After many defeats in NY--Princeton and Trenton
Leaders of the Revolution
George Washington and Alexander Hamilton-- needed a stronger government
George Washington, Samuel Adams, and Paul Revere.
Slavery during the revolution
Some states start to move away from it
-North moving towards abolishing and south removed restrictions on manumission
Land Ordinance 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
the immediate goal of the ordinance was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states acquired after the end of the Revolutionary War
PROVIDING FOR SURVEYING WESTERN LAND
Northwest Ordinance 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
A British general of Massachusetts who ordered the stored weapons seized by the Sons of Liberty to be taken back & the leaders arrested
Shot heard around the world
phrase given to the shots fired at Lexington and Concord, MA, the first battles between the colonial minutemen and the British in the Revolutionary War
Battle of Bunker Hill
-First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths--defenses on buker and breed's hill
-ruined all chances of making peace
Olive Branch Petition
A final offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George llI->to appease the moderates
Final reasons for the declaration
1. Hiring Hessian mercenaries
2. Common Sense
Professional German soldiers hired to fight for Britain
larger population, financial resources, highly trained and professional army, Royal Navy controlled seas and trade, Native American tribes helped British, Many Americans opposed independence, Black American slaves were offered freedom if they helped the British, industrial capacity
They fought on their own land, they were experts at wilderness fighting, they got help from other countries, they had a determined and courageous man, George Washington, as their commander in chief of their army, and they had a more important reason to win.
were fighting other countries at the time; European style of fighting not suitable for North American wilderness, British had logistical problems across Atlantic Ocean, British army had to destroy Washington's army, army was ill-directed, public opinion divided
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Battle of Princeton
A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Deleware River. The next morning, they suprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians.
during the summer of 1776, he led hundreds of British ships and 32,000 British soldiers to New York, and offered Congress the choice between surrender with royal pardon and a battle against the odds, and despite having far fewer troops, the Americans rejected the offer.
(October 17, 1777) Often referred to as the turning point in the American Revolution. American troops under General Horatio Gates defeat British troops led by General Johnny Burgoyne. Turning point for three reasons: (1) British plan to divide the colonies in two is defeated, (2) Americans defeat British in a European-style confrontation, (3) French government is convinced that Americans CAN win the war and decide to thrown their support to the American cause--recognized them as independent.
-North offered to repeal the intolerable acts and never tax the colonies--REJECTED
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
A siege in Yorktown Virginia were 7,000 British troops awaiting resupply from the British Navy were sieged by the French Navy and American ground troops led by George W. The British were forced to surrender. This caused great commotion in Britain and many thought it was over for Britain. It was considered the victory battle of the war.
Treaty of Paris
Ended the war
Britain recognized US, generous boundaries, withdrew troops, granted fishing rights
Franklin and Jay played England against France to get what they wanted
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Congress--legislative body, not a government
Financing the Revolution
Robert Morris-restored stabilty to currency
Both state and Congress issuing paper money->loss in value
Causes of Constitution
-Great Britain removed its forces from the thirteen states but refused to surrender its outposts on the frontier, citing the failure of Americans to aid in the restoration of Tory property and the collection of prewar debts. In the southwest, the Spanish closed the Mississippi River to American commerce
-Congress could not pay the nation's debts; states raised taxes to pay their debts; and the entire economy was cash poor. The new nation experienced hard times from 1784 to 1786. Retaliatory tariffs on British goods would have dealt with some of the problems, but the
Confederation lacked authority to levy them-Shay's rebellion
1786 revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and foreclosure that was a factor in the calling of the Constitutional Convention., 1786, Captain Daniel Shays of Mass, a farmer and Rev. War veteran, led other farmers in an uprising against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, and lack of paper money; stopped collecting taxes and forced closing of courts; 1787, when Shays and followers attempted to take weapons from the Springfield armory, the state militia of Mass broke the rebellion
COULDN'T SEND TROOPS TO MASS. WHEN THEY ASKED
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
A nation's basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens. Constitutions can be either written or unwritten.
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
Report on Public Credit
This was the first of three major reports on economic policy issued by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton on the request of Congress. The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States. Hamilton proposed a remarkable set of policies for handling the debt problem. All debts were to be paid at face value. The Federal government would assume all of the debts owed by the states, and it would be financed with new U.S. government bonds paying about 4% interest.
Interpretation of the Constitution: Broad
strict constructionists: Congress should be allowed to exercise very few implied powers so that government will remain small
Broad constructionists: Congress should be allowed to exercise many implied powers so that government can take a greater role in shaping events
1796 speech by Washington urging US to maintain neutrality and avoid permanent alliances with European nations
Most people wanted a stronger government, and the Articles of Confederation could not provide it. In 1786, delegates from five states met in Annapolis (convention failed) to discuss common problems-> even Maryland (host state) didn't show up
Hamilton decided to meet again in Phil
Washington unanimously elected--John Adams VP
delegates kept a secret, formed a completely new government
who advocated a strong central government, proposed calling another convention for the following year to consider constitutional reform. The meeting approved Hamilton's suggestion, and all states except Rhode Island sent delegates to the convention in Philadelphia
, 1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Process for ratification
Disputes in NY led to the Federalist papers,written by Alexander Hamilton with Madison and John Jay
In general, the Federalists were better organized than their opponents. The Federalist Papers (brilliantly explained and defended the proposed new system.
When New York shifted North Carolina and R.I. followed
Bill of Rights also encouraged many to stay
ONLY NEEDED 9 STATES
Tariff of 1789
Tax on imports and all foreign shipping. It was meant to raise money and stimulate the merchant marine rather than to protect any industry.
1854 - anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories
!!!Jefferson and the Republicans supported France
Pro-French and revolution
Protect the masses and individual rights
Hamilton was for the wealthy and would appease Britain's every request
Pro-business, strong national bank, hard currency
Had the ear of Washington
Expanded political power of the national government
Felt the masses were dangerous and needed guidance
Felt Jefferson was hot headed and biased as Sec. of State toward France
Federalists-French war with Britain
Federalists backed the British
- established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
Treaty of Greenville
(1795) an agreement between Native American confederation leaders and the U.S. government that gave the United States Indian lands in the Northwest Territory and guaranteed that U.S. citizens could safely travel through the region
AFTER FALLEN TIMBERS
Election of 1796
Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalists feared that Republicans would side with France if war broke out. In addition, refugees from both sides of the European war flocked to theUnited States. Partly out of fear of subversion and partly in an effort to smash their political opponents, Federalists pushed a series of repressive measures through Congress in 1798.
The Naturalization Act increased the residence requirement for citizenship. The Alien Enemies Act empowered the president to arrest or expel aliens in time of declared war; and the Sedition Act made it a crime "to impede the operation of any law," to instigate
insurrection, or to publish "false, scandalous and malicious" criticism of government officials.
As the election of 1800 neared, Federalists attempted to silence leading Republican newspapers
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolves
This would be the response written by Madison and Jefferson that would make a response to take away the Alien and Sedition Acts, Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Alien and Sedition Act
(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
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