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History of Med Exam 1

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Imhotep
- First physician we know.
- a true ancestor of modern medicine (~3000 BCE); later made the Egyptian god of medicine
Empedocles
came up with four humors of the body (Hippocratic system)
Hippocrates
- the father of medicine whose influence has come down through the ensuring ages from his own era to ours

- "primum non nocere" - first, do no harm
Corpus Hippocraticum
4 humors: yellow bile, black bile, blood, phlegm - concept that persisted until the 19th century.
Galen
- Most important figure in evolution of modern medicine
- Venisection
- Perpetuated the idea of medicine as science
Rhazes
Greatest clinician of islamic world, wrote >200 papers + treaties, influential until 16th Century.
Avicenna
"The Islamic Galen"
His Canon still used by traditional healers
Maimonides
- work in medicine, philosophy + theology make him one of the leading lights in Islamic Medicine
- Translated many books written in Arabic into Hebrew
Vesalius
- refuted many of Galens anatomic concepts
- Wrote (1543) De Human Corpus fabrica
first text based on dissection
Filled with elaborate + accurate drawings
Ambroise Pare
- "Father of Surgery" a french barber surgeon with little formal education observed that cleaned and dressed wounds did better.
- Relied on observation
"I dressed the wounds but God healed the pt."
Paracelsus
"Father of Pharmacology" "Peristalsis" after his medicine
William Harvey
- De Motu Cordis is a model of medical research - anti galen
- thought 2 types of blood, discoveries on circulatory system, defined cardiac output
- understood heart/lung circulation
Edward Jenner
vaccine against small pox
Thomas Sydenham
"The English Hippocrates"
- Emphasized bedside treatment/observation, quinine for malaria, each person is unique
- emphasized disease were specific entities
Francis Bacon
- lawyer, natural philosopher, legislator - corrupt
• Carefully planned experiments, observation, developed inductive reasoning
Versailles
printed first detailed tome of anatomical text "Father of Anatomy"
Rembrant
painted portrait "Anatomy lesson of Professor Tulp"
Priestly and Lavoiser
discovered oxygen
Herman Boerhaave
- "Father of Scientific Method"
- Responsible for development of bedside teaching/learned from the patient.
- First physician who attempted to systematize medicine. Attempted to make the connection between symptoms and disease.
Leopold Auenbrugger
- "Father of Cardiology"
- Took great interest in percussion, no stethoscope at the time.
Jean-Nicholas Corvisart
French physician to Napolean. Gets most of the credit for percussion even though he learned it from Auenbrugger.
Albert Von Haller
"Father of physiology"
- Wrote Elements of Physiology
Giovanni Morgagni
"Father of Pathology"
Linked symptoms of diseases to Anatomy.
Francois Xavier Bichat
"Father of Histology"
- Napoleon of medicine, tireless worker 18-20 hours a day
- Placed facts in the forefront and banished ideology.
William and John Hunter
Brothers
- William is well known for his work in obstetrics
- John "founder of modern day surgical pathology" attempted some of the first work with transplants.
Philippe Pinel
- "Father of Psychiatry"
worked to stop brutal treatment of the insane that were chained up and placed in prison. Received much ridicule
Johann Wolstein
realized blood is a necessity. Against blood letting
Guillaume Dupuytren
- "Father of Orthopedic Surgery"
discovered disease Dupuytren's contracture
Rene Laennec
pathology, discovered Lannec's cirrhosis of liver
Invented the Stethoscope
Dominiques Jean Larrey
surgeon of Napoleon
developed the flying ambulance system.
Antonio Scarpa
- Italian anatomist and surgeon: Orthopedics and ophthalmology - Did some "body snatching"
John Knox & William Burke
received body from body snatchers (resurrectionists)
- William Burke ran a tavern and killed people (drunk, homeless )
Sir Cooper
- did work with diseases of the breast
- vascular surgery
Sir Charles Bell
-"Father of Neurology"
discovered Bell's Palsy disease of 7th cranial nerve
-discerned motor and sensory nerves
John Abernathy
- Excellent teacher, brusque surgeon made many contributions
- Focused on the anatomy of the head and neck
Ben Rush
-Hippocrates of Pennsylvania
-At the bedside of his patients
-No compassion for mentally ill
Effram McDowell
"Father of Abdominal Surgery"
- first successful GI surgery
William Beaumont
Gastric Physiology - Mid 1800's
-Studied juices running out of a patient.
-Meat experiment determined the juice was stomach acid composed of HCL.
James Young Simpson
-Realized that the risk of an operation was so high because there were no anesthesia techniques.
-Got the ball rolling for future work.
Horrace Wells
Dentist
placed a patient under anesthesia controlled fashion.
-patient died, so upset he committed suicide 4 years later.
William T.G. Morton
-Ether used + nitrous oxide (NO) developed
-1846 Massachusetts's general hospital anesthesia for surgery begins
Oliver Wendell Holmes
-believe midwives needed to wash hands
-ridiculed for theory
Louis Pasteur
Germ Theory. Modern day bacteriology, not a physician just a brilliant man with keen observational skills.
Lord Lister
-Antiseptics. Bacteria can be removed using a dilute carbolic acid spray during surgeries to reduce infection
Robert Koch
-"Father of Infectious Disease"
Koch postulates that a disease culture organism can be grown and re-induce the disease
Rudolph Vircow
German/ Worked in cellular pathology and teaching
James Marion Sims
""Father of Gynecology"
-Sims retractor
Rene Descartes
- Not MD.
- Natural philosopher - invented algebra/geometry
- Sought absolute scientific truth, believed medicine to be key the natural world
- saw body as a mechanism - "link to osteopathy"
Royal Society of London
Robert Boyle, Christopher Wren + 10 others founded in 1660
- became THE driving force of new science
- critical of galen and aristoelian science
- advocates of Bacon's inductive reasoning
Academie Royaly du Sciences
Founded in 1666 by Louis XIV - followed Descartes' mechanical philosophy
Isaac Newton
influenced by Boyle, Hooke, Descartes
- optics, calculus, math/gravitation
- fellow of Royal Society of London
Robert Boyle
Alchemist, Physicist
- showed air was necessary for life
- interested in blood + its function
- Argued AGAINST traditional elements of various systems (air, fire, earth, mercury, etc.
- influenced how we look at lung disease
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
- had no science training - was a draper
- designed single-lens microscope capable of 250x
- discovered "animacules" in H2O