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a215 Chapter 1 Body Regions/Cavities/Reference

Planes of Reference and Descriptive terms body regions body cavities
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anatomic position
upright, feet parallel, palms forward. gives a reference so we can all determine from the same body.
sagittal plane
divides the body into right and left portions, can have many, not necessarily down the middle.
midsagittal plane
divides the body equally into right and left HALVLES. there is only one!
Coronal plane
or frontal, divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back). same direction as suture on skull
transverse plane
or horizontal plane, divides the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) portions
anterior
in front of, toward front of surface.
ex) the stomach is _____ to the spinal cord.
posterior
in back of, toward the back surface
ex) the heart is ____ to the sternum
dorsal
at the back side of the human body
ex) the spinal cord is on the ___ side of the body
ventral
at the belly side of the human body
ex) the umbilicus (navel, belly button) is on the ____ side of the body
superior
relative to the head or tail of the body, closer to the head
ex) the chest is ____ to the pelvis.
inferior
relative to the head or tail of the body; closer to the feet
ex) the stomach is _____ to the heart
caudal
relative to the head or tail of the body; at the rear or tail end
ex) the abdomen is _____ to the head
cranial
relative to the head or tail of the body; at the head end
ex) the head is _____ to the trunk.
medial
relative to the midline or center of the body; toward the midline of the body
ex) the lungs are _____ to the shoulders
lateral
relative to the midline or center of the body; away from the midline of the body.
ex) the arms are ____ to the heart
deep
relative to the midline or center of the body; on the inside, underneath another structure.
ex) muscles are _____ To the skin
superficial
relative to the midline or center of the body; on the outside.
ex) the external edge of the kidney is _____ to its internal structure.
proximal
relative to point of attachment of the appendage; closest to point of attachment to trunk.
ex) the elbow is ______ to the hand
distal
relative to point of attachment of the appendage; furthest from point of attachment to trunk.
ex) the wrist is ___ to the elbow.
cephalic region
region of the head. subregions include orbital, nasal, oral, mental, frontal, occipital.
orbital region
subregion of cephalic region; referring to the eye
nasal
subregion of cephalic region; referring to the nose
oral
subregion of cephalic region; referring to the mouth
mental
subregion of cephalic region; referring to the chin
frontal
subregion of cephalic region; referring to the forehead
occipital
subregion of cephalic region; referring to the back of the head
cervical region
region referred to as the neck. neck referred to as the cervix
thoracic region
alco called the thorax, chest region. includes the pectoral region, mammary region, sternal region, axillary region.
pectoral region
subregion of the thorax; chest (subdivided into left and right __regions)
mammary region
subregion of the thorax; breast
steranl region
subregion of the thorax; area of chest between L and R pectoral regions
axillary region
subregion of the thorax; armpit
abdominal region
located inferior to diaphragm and superior to the hips
pelvic region
inferior to the abdominal region, located between the hip bones
upper extremity
arm; includes the deltoid region, brachium region, antecubital region, carpal region, and hand region (palmar, dorsum)
deltoid region
subregion of the upper extremity; shoulder
brachium region
subregion of the upper extremity; arm - define as from shoulder to elbow
antecubital region
subregion of the upper extremity; elbow region
antebrachium region
subregion of the upper extremity; forearm - between elbow and hand
carpal region
subregion of the upper extremity; wrist
hand
subregion of the upper extremity; includes palmar (palm) and dorsum (back of hand)
Lower extremity
leg, subregions include femoral region, patellar region, popliteal region, crural region, and foot (plantar, dorsum)
femoral region
subregion of the lower extremity; thigh, from hip to knee
patellar region
subregion of the lower extremity; anterior surface of the knee
popliteal region
subregion of the lower extremity; posterior of the knee
crural region
subregion of the lower extremity; leg, from knee to ankle
foot
subregion of the lower extremity; pedal region, plantar (sole of foot) and dorsum (top surface of foot)
body cavity
enclosed spaces within the body
endo
prefix meaning "within"
cranial cavity
body cavity; aka endocranium, houses the brain no serous membrane
vertebral canal
body cavity; cylindrical opening formed by the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord. no serous membrane
thoracic cavity
body cavity; chest cavity, bounded inferiorly by the diaphragm. includes 2 pleural (lung) cavities, a mediastinum, and pericardial cavity.
pleural cavity
the cavity associated with the lungs, subregion of the thoracic cavity. contains pleural serousm membrane
mediastinum
cavity between the lungs, subregion of the thoracic cavity. contains the pericardial cavity, thymus, trachea, esophagus, and major blood vessels. no serous membrane
pericardial cavity
cavity associated with the heart, subregion of the thoracic cavity. contains pericardium serous membrane
abdominopelvic cavity
cavity that consists of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
abdominal cavity
cavity within the abdominopelvic cavity, sits superior to an imaginary line drawn between the superior aspects of the hip bones and inferior to the diaphragm. associated with abdominal viscera, including stomach, spleein, liver, pancreas, small intestine, most of large intestine, kidneys, ureters. contains peritoneum serous membrane.
pelvic cavity
cavity within the abdominopelvic cavity, sits inferior to an imaginary line drawn between the superior aspects of the hip bones. associated with the pelvic viscera, including urinary bladdar and urethra, interal reproductive organs, andsome of the large intestine. contains peritoneum seroius membrane
serous membranes
composed of tissue. either support or cover organs or line the walls of some body cavities. secrete serous fluid, which reduces friction and lubricates.
parietal layer
the layer of a serous membrane that lines the internal surface of a body wall.
visceral layer
the layer of a serous membrane that covers the external surface of organs. visceral = organ
serous cavity
potential space between parietal and visceral layer of serous membrane. this is where the serious fluid is secreted!
pleurisy
clinical application: an inflammation of (usually both visceral and parietal) pleura. less serous produced and white BC produce a sticky material (not a lubricant). very painful to breathe because of the additional friction, stabbing chest pain. may after a respiratory infection.
peritoneum
periteino = to stretch over. a moist, two layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity. parietal and visceral peritoneum.